Image Dictionary D E F G

D-65
CIE standard illuminate that represents a color temperature of 6504ºK, the color temperature that is most widely used in graphic art color-viewing booths.
d
metric prefix for deci (one tenth; abbreviation for thread diameter.

d-max
highest level of density.

d-min
lowest level of density.

da
abbreviation for deca (deka).

Dacron
a trademark term for synthetic polyester textile fiber.

dam
a barrier placed on the squeegee side of the screen to hold the print ink in a confined area.

damar (dammar)
a fossil resin used as an ingredient in screen printing varnishes and lacquers.

dandy roll
a wire cylinder in papermaking that creates the watermark, texture, or special effect on a sheet.

danner process
a mechanical process for continuously drawing glass tubing from a rotating mandrel.

dark reaction
the forming of a gel like substance, premature polymerization of UV ink without being exposed to a UV light source; (2) a slow chemical change that occurs in light sensitive emulsion or coating when the material is stored.

dark spot
a concentration of pigment in one spot that can be caused by a depression in the printed substrate material.

darkfield
an illumination technique that lights the specimen surface from an oblique angle to highlight surface problems.

darkroom
a room where actinic rays of light have been excluded used for manufacturing, handling, and developing light sensitive materials.

darkroom camera
refer to process camera.

data processing
the manipulation, recording and handling of data by means of electronic equipment.

daylight camera
a self-contained graphic art camera that does not have to be operated in a darkroom.

daylight fluorescence
the phenomena of increased color brilliance wherethe wavelengths of other colors in the spectrum converge.

daylight illuminants CIE
series of spectral power distribution curves based on measurements of natural daylight and recommended by the CIE in 1965. Values are defined for the wavelength region 300 to 830nm.

dB (db)
abbreviation for decibel, the logarithmic acoustical unit scale for sound levels.

DC
acroynm for direct current; refer to current, direct.

DCS (Desktop Color Separation)
Computer file format including four EPS files for CMYK; a graphics file appropriate to the operating platform for screen display.

dead finish
a smooth non-glare finish.

dead front
cosmetic feature of a graphic overlay where the display is visible only when backlit.

dead match
an exact matching of a mixed color with a sample or previously match batch.

dead stretch
the net increase in length after a plastic material has been elongated without breaking, and allowed to relax.

dead white
a neutral white without any visible tint.

dealer’s privilege
a two-sided p.o.p. unit which carries an advertisement on one side and a message from the dealer to his customers on the reverse.

debossing
a technique for impressing a design or texture into a material.

debug
(1) testing and/or correcting errors; to bring any newly installed unit of equipment up to operating mode dependability.

deburring
the process of removing rough edge deformations caused by cutting and/or drilling dielectric supports for printed circuits.

deca (deka)
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the power of one (101); symbol is da.

decal (deca)
an abbreviated form of decalcomania, the French designation of a design printed on specially prepared paper for transfer to a substrate.

decal adhesive
a clear, screen printable, water soluble compound printed over the face surface of decal for face-down adhesion on a transparent substrate for viewing through the substrate.

decal, cement-type
refer to decal, varnish-on.

decal, duplex
a heavy backing paper laminated with a very high grade of tissue paper that is coated with a decal solution receptacle to a screen printed image.

decal, heat release
a decal printed face down on a special release paper to be transferred from the carrier paper to the substrate by the application of heat and pressure.

decal, simplex (decal, slide-off)
a design printed on a special paper that is highly water absorbent, and has a coating of water soluble adhesive on one face. (The design is printed on the adhesive surface, and in application is dipped in water to release the design from the adhesive so it will slide into position from the paper surface).

decal varnish
a specially formulated fast-setting varnish used for adhering certain types of decals usually intended for outdoor exposure.

decal, varnish-on
a clear lacquer printed on duplex paper, followed by the design that is printed in reverse, then another lacquer coat, and finally an adhering varnish is applied to the substrate before the decal is positioned.

decal, water slide
refer to decal, simplex.

decalcomania
refer to decal.

decalcomania paper
a specially coated absorbent paper made of cotton fiber mixed with chemical wood pulp, having a smooth, uniform finish and with a good wet strength and finsihed as a simplex or duplex decal paper.

decant
to remove liquid and leave the solids behind in a liquid slurry.

deci
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative 1 power (10-1) or 0.1; symbol is d.

decibel (dB, db)
the logarithmic acoustical unit scale used for expressing transmission gains, losses, and levels, and for measuring relative intensity of sound.

deckle
papermaking, the width of the wet sheet as it comes off the wire of a paper machine.

deckle edge
the untrimmed, feature edge of a sheet of paper formed when the pulp flows and sets against the deckle or is formed by a jet of water or air against the edge during paper making. (Deckle-edged papers are often used in fine art printing).

decoating
refer to reclaiming.

decolorization
a material added in small amount to a glass batch to counteract the effects of iron or other contaminating element.

decomposition
the breakingdown or separation of a substance.

decorated
to embellish, adorn, mark, and/or make more attractive aesthetically or functionally.

dedicated circuit
an independent electrical connection devoted to a special purpose.

deep line cut
a method of cutting overlays so that trapping is improved.

deep well exposing unit
a table or bench mounted unit equipped with a flexible, transparent top instead of glass which can be molded around a direct printing screen by vacuum for exposing.

definition
(1) image sharpness, resolution, fidelity or clarity of detail; (2) a subjective measure of the overall quality, resolution, and acutance of a printed shape against the substrate or background.

deflection gauge
refer to tensionmeter.

deflection temperature
temperature at which a standard test bar deflects 0.25 mm (0.010 in) under stated load of either 0.45 MPa (66 psi) or 1.82 MPa (264 psi).

deflocculant
an agent for dispersing a suspension of ingredients in a vehicle to lower viscosity and to inhibit settling.

defocused system
in UV curing, locating the substrate at a point other than the focal point of the lamp, to initiate curing.

deformation
a change of shape through stress.

defoamer
an additive that eliminates entrapped air bubbles from ink or base being mixed.

degauss
process of eliminating magnetism, such as with a color monitor face plate, to eliminate distortion.

degrease
the act of removing oil or grease film from metal parts before printing or from screen mesh prior to stencil application.

degree of cure
in UV curable coatings, it is generally inversely related to the level of free monomer.

dehaze
the removal of ghost images from a reclaimed screen.

dehydration
the loss of water from a sheet of paper from exposure to high-temperature, low-humidity air, or both.

delamination
the separation of material constructed in layers in a direction approximately parallel to the surface.

deliquescent
refer to hygroscopic.

delta (D)
used to indicate deviation or difference; a change.

Delta E*, Delta e*
the total color difference computed with a color difference equation. It is generally calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the chromaticity difference, Delta C*, and the lightness difference, Delta L*.

deltascope
device used to measure thickness, typically with eddy currents.

denier
a unit of fineness for synthetic filaments and yarns based on a standard of 50 milligrams per 450 meters of yarn or one yarn/filament weighing one gram per 9000 meters. (The lower the denier, the finer the yarn).

dens
abbreviation for density.

densitometer
an instrument for measuring the optical density of a photographic image or color in color printing.

densitometer, combination
measures both reflection and transmission densities.

densitometer, reflection
measures the amount of light that bounces off a print at 90º angle.

densitometer, transmission
measures the fraction of incident light conveyed through a negative or positive transparency without being absorbed or scattered.

density
(1) a measurement of the opacity of an area in an image.); (2) the density of a fiber with its weight expressed in grams per cubic centimeter; (3) the mass of any unit volume of a material; (4) a measure of reflectance or transmittance equal to log 10 1/reflectance of log 10 or 1/transmittance; (5) the ratio of a substance mass to its volume at a given temperature and pressure; also refer to color density.

density range (density scale)
the difference between the highest density and the lowest density in a negative, transparency, photographic print, or printed press sheet; determines the amount of light that will pass through a transparency or reflect from a print.

densometer
an instrument for measuring the time required for a volume of air to pass through a given area of paper; a mill instrument used for measuring the porosity of paper.

deposit of ink (deposition)
the ink imprint left on the substrate by the act of screen printing.

depth of field
the distance from a point between the camera lens and subject or copy to a point behind the subject, between which point the foreground, subject, and background are in focus when a lens is focused on subject copy.

depth of focus
the distance that a lens can be moved toward or away from subject or copy when focused, without throwing the subject or copy out of focus.

dermatitis
a skin condition or inflammation produced by direct contact with certain chemicals.

descender
the portion of a lower case character that extends below the baseline, such as in g, j, or p.

descreening
in scanning, the method of applying a controlled blur to erase discreet components of a halftone image and make it appear more like a continuous-tone image. This process will minimize effects of causing moiré patterns if the image is re-screened.

desiccated
a condition referring to a substance where some or all of the moisture has been removed; to dry or dehydrate.

design of experiments
a methodology for designing experiments to test the effect of multiple process parameters on a given process’s outcome.

detackifier
an additive used to reduce tackiness in a plastisol ink, thereby improving ink flow and shear.

detergent resistance
degree of, or ability to resist chemical action of detergents.

Deutschas Institut für Normung e V:
a national standards organization in Germany.

developer
a solution or chemical for converting the latent or invisible image obtained during exposure into a visible image.

developing
the process of converting latent images, produced by exposure, into visible images. In screen printing, chemical solutions and/or water may be used for developing or washing exposed stencil films and printing screens.

developing sink (darkroom sink)
a fixture resembling a household sink, especially designed for developing photographic film with trays and/or partitions for solutions, water mixing faucet with or without temperature controls and some are designed with built-in light table for visually examining results.

developing trays
large, shallow trays of plastic, stainless steel or other non-ferrous substances in which exposed films can be processed manually.

deviation
the difference between the value of the controlled variable and the value at which it is being controlled.

deviation bridge
device used in measuring in percentage, the deviation from nominal value of electronic components.

device-dependent
describes a color space that can be defined only by using information on the color-rendering capabilities of a specific device.

device-independent
describes a color space that can be defined using the full gamut of human vision, as defined by a standard observer, independent of the color-rendering capabilities of any specific device.

devitrification
(1) a surface defect caused by the loss of gloss as a result of crystallization; (2) change from vitreous to crystalline state.

dewpoint
the temperature at which a given sample of air will have a relative humidity of 100%.

diacetone alcohol
a ketone manufactured by the condensation of acetone in two grades, one containing up to 15% acetone and the other acetone free.

diameter
a straight line passing through the center of a circle dividing it into two equal parts.

diamond grade
top quality reflective sheeting with excellent intensity of retro reflectivity.

diaphragm
an adjustable device for controlling the amount or area of light which passes through the lens of a camera.

diapositive
European term used to designate a photographic film positive or a manually made positive.

diarylide yellow
a strong organic yellow pigment with good color, small particle size, high tinctorial strength, poor to fair lightfastness.

diathermal
the property of transmitting radiant heat.

diazo
(1) a photosensitive chemical or process by which screen printing emulsions are made sensitive to actinic light; (2) a compound containing a group of two nitrogen atoms (N2) united with one hydrocarbon radical or with one hydrocarbon radical and an other atom or group of atoms.

diazo emulsion
an emulsion for making a screen printing stencil that is sensitized with diazo chemicals rather than a bichromate sensitizer to make it light sensitive.

diazo-photopolymer
refer to dual-cure emulsions.

diamond grade
a highly retroreflective sheeting made of prismatic lenses formed in a durable resin, sealed with a white film and backed with a pressure sensitive adhesive.

DIBK
acroynm for diisobutyl ketone.

dice
very small cubic fractures in highly stressed glass.

dichlorobenzidine yellow HR
an organic yellow pigment with good bleed and fade resistance, fair in tints.

dichroic color
property of having two peaks in the spectrophotometric reflectance curve causing it to respond differently to differnet light sources.

dichroism
the property of showing different colors depending on the thickness of the substrate or concentration of printed ink.

die
a tool for cutting out, forming, or stamping material.

die board
the plywood base into which the steel rule dies are inserted.

die cut label
pressure sensitive label on a release liner from which the matrix has been removed.

die cut prespaced
the die cutting of pressure sensitive sheet to pre- determined patterns, the die being made to accurately space the portions on the sheet, then, application tape is applied to the facing to maintain the prespacing of the pattern or parts.

die cutting
process of blanking or cutting a sheet or roll stock to a predetermined shape.

die cut to liner
the die cutting of a pressure sensitive sheet to the depth of the face layer only, without cutting the backing or support sheet.

die-cut transfer, calico
a cotton print fabric with heat seal backing; will adhere to cotton blends.

die-cut transfer, flex
a flexible, rubber-like plastic which adheres best to cotton and cotton blends, where the minimum cotton in the fabric is of 40%.

die-cut transfer/flock
a heat seal transfer with suede or velvet-like finish, which adheres well to cotton and cotton blends.

die-cut transfer, glitter
a heat seal transfer with a metallic luster that adds sparkling brilliance to garments; may be applied to cotton and cotton blends.

die-cut transfer, patchwork
flex/heat transfer material with a patchwork quilt look; may be applied to cotton and cotton blends.

die-cut transfer, prisma
a reflectable illuminized plastic heat transfer that shimmers like a rainbow and may be applied to both cotton and cotton blends.

dielectric
a non-conducting or insulating material; a substance with electrical conductivity less than a millionth (10-6) of a mho.

dielectric breakdown
any change in the property of a dielectric material that causes it to become conductive.

dielectric constant
related to the force of attraction between two opposite charges separated in a uniform medium; determinant of the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for each unit potential gradient, (plastics have a dielectric constant of 2.5 to 7).

dielectric ink
a printable compound which has insulating properties on drying, used for separating portions of circuits for encapsulating components or entire modules for protection from environmental influences.

dielectric strength
(1) the maximum voltage that an insulator can withstand, expressed in volts/mil, without allowing current to pass through; (2) insulating value of material against the flow of electricity.

die, embossing
a brass, steel, or magnesium die used to impress a design in relief.

die line
the line or marking on a tracing that indicates where the blades of the die should strike in cutting.

die, male and female
convex and concave matching dies.

die press
(1) a manually operated machine for forming steel rule dies; (2) a die cutting press.

differential pressure
the difference in static pressure between two identical pressure taps at the same elevation located in two different locations in a primary device.

diffuse dither
a method for printing continuous-tone images on laser printers in which the grayscale information is represented by randomly located printer dots.

diffuse transmission
process by which incident light that passes through an object and is redirected or scattered over a range of angles.

diffusion
softening the detail in a print with a diffusion lens/disk or other material that scatters light.

diffusion disk
a flat glass with a pattern of lines or concentric rings that breaks up and scatters light from an enlarger lens; softens detail in a print.

diffusion enlarger
a type of enlarger that scatters light, distributing light evenly on the negative.

diffusion transfer
photographic method of transferring an image from an exposed donor negative paper to a receiver film or paper, in one step, using a film processor.

diffusion-transfer base stock
a paper with a high degree of wet strength and smooth surface to which a silver halide-gelatin emulsion is applied, produced on stock free from iron, copper, and sulfur and resistant to yellowing when exposed to a caustic solution.

digital
image and line data that has been translated into numerical values for manipulation and reproduction.

digital color printing
one of serveral non-impact technologies where the image is formed by a computer controlled printer.. (Generally accepted to include: electrostatic, ink jet, laser photo, and thermal transfer.)

digital halftone
the process of obtaining various tones by breaking up the image into a graduated series of dots. The dots repeat in a regular pattern, creating the illusion of continuous tone. The digital printing process is controlled by the size and shape of dots.

digital printer
any printing device that is capable of translating digital data into hardcopy output.

digitize
to transform a continuous tone image into computer readable data using a device called a scanner.

diisobutyl ketone (DIBK)
a relatively slow evaporating ketone used as a retarding solvent.

dil
abbreviation for dilute.

dilatancy
the property of some suspensions that increase in viscosity with increasing shear rates.

dilatant fluids
fluids whose viscosity increases as shear rate increases.

dilatometer
instrument used for measuring the coefficient of thermal expansion and melting point of glass and ceramic materials.

diluent
a reactive or non-reactive additive whose function is to extend the material to which it is added, but weakens the power of the active solvent.

dilutable
solution that can be thinned or made weaker in strength with the addition of the appropriate solvent, water, or other liquid.

dilute solutions
a solution containing a small amount of solute in proportion to the solvent, the solute being dissolved by the solvent; also refer to concentrated solution.

dimensional accuracy
the ability to reproduce the dimensions of the original art identically in the printed image.

dimensional stability
the property of a material to retain its desirable basic qualities under production stresses and the influences of humidity fluctuations; to resist length, width, and thickness changes.

dimple
a slight depression or indentation in any surface.

DIN
acronym for Deutsches Institut für Normung e V, a German National Standards Body.

ding
an indentation that can be felt such as a dent or nick.

DIN rating
a European scale by which the relative sensitivity of photographic films are identified.

dinitrosaniline orange
an organic orange pigment with good bleed and permanency.

dioxazine violet RL
a violet pigment with excellent lightfastness and bleed characteristics, resistant to acid and alkali.

dipentene
a true chemical compound having higher solvent power and slower evaporation rate than turpentine, largely used as an anti-skinning agent in inks.

dipropylene glycol
an ether alcohol used as a resin solvent in the manufacture of some printing inks.

direct color separation
separations made directly onto a film through a halftone screen.

direct drive
a feature of some screen printing presses, where the surface to be printed is synchronized with screen/squeegee movement such as by a rack and gear driven mechanism.

direct dye
a class of dye used on cotton and rayon that works directly on the yarn without the aid of a fixative; (economical, not colorfast, and color not as bright as fiber reactive dye).

direct emulsion
a liquid light sensitive polymer emulsion coated onto a tensioned screen mesh and used as a screen printing stencil.

direct fire
a system of firing where burner gases are introduced into a lehr or kiln chamber in direct contact with the ware.

direct halftone
a halftone negative made by direct exposure through a halftone screen.

direct/indirect photoscreen stencil
a stencil made by adhering a gelatin coated sheet to the underside of tensioned mesh with a photo-sensitized emulsion applied from the print side through the mesh, after drying, the screen is exposed through a positive, developed, and the plastic support sheet stripped away.

direct illumination
images lit from the outside with floods, spots, etc.

direct photoscreen stencil
a photoscreen stencil made by coating light sensitive emulsion onto tensioned mesh, allowing it to dry, then exposing to a film positive preparatory to processing into a screen printing stencil.

direct positive
a photographic transparent positive made by exposing copy in direct contact with film, eliminating the necessity of making a negative first.

direct print
the imprinting directly onto the surface of a substrate.

direct printing screen
refer to direct stencil.

direct stencil
coating tensioned mesh with an emulsion, usually pre-sensitized, allowing the coating to dry, then exposing to a positive and developing to form the stencil.

directional sign
a display showing guidance information used both outside and inside buildings.

DIS
acroynm for draft international standard.

disappearing hook lock
a device for connecting display elements.

disappearing guide
a register guide (or stop) that mechanically retracts into the printing table on an automated press during the printing cycle.

discharge agent
a chemical zinc formaldehyde sulfoxylate that removes the color from a dischargable substrate.

discharge printing
the printing of cotton garments that have been colored with a dye that can be dispersed and replaced by another color during the printing process.

discoloration
any change from the original color or an unintended inconsistency of color.

discrete component
a thick film or thin film individually packaged electronic component or part having one or more films as resistive, conductive, and/or insulating elements.

dishing
paper in piles where the edges are higher than the center, usually caused by absorption of atmospheric moisture by the exposed edges of the sheets.

dispenser
to distribute such as a device that feeds pressure sensitive labels either manually or automatically in convenient units.

disperse dye
a water-insoluble textile dye used on polyester or acetate.

dispersing agent
a material added to a suspended medium to aid in the separation of the individual, extremely fine particles such as pigments or colloids.

dispersion
(1) the condition of heterogeneous components in a colloid state, such as very finely divided particles of one substance suspended uniformly in the medium of another substance; (2) to break up a particle aggregate into separate particles without changing the particle size.

display
a device or group of devices so designed and arranged as to attract attention, particularly at the point of sale; to arrange a device or group of devices in public view.

display board
a thick paperboard used for screen printed advertising display, can also be foam-filled and laminated paper (or plastic) boards used for the same purpose.

display pocket
a pocket, usually on the face of a display for holding small folders and the like, or (on the face) for displaying its contents.

display type
type set larger than the text used to attract attention.

disposal
the discharge, deposit, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any solid or hazardous waste into the air or discharging into any water or waterway.

distillation
to purify liquids through boiling; the volatilation of a liquid by heating in a retort or still and condensing the resultant vapor by cooling.

distillation range
a series of temperatures recorded while boiling a solvent sample.

distort
to twist out of a natural or regular shape.

distortion copy
copy that is intentionally distorted to compensate for the effects of dimensional changes during subsequent processing, such as vacuum forming of a printed plastic sheet.

distressing
a mechanical or chemical process that is used to remove dye and abrade a garment giving it a worn splochy look.

dithering
a graphic display or printing process that uses a combination of dots or textures to simulate an original image or output device with the purpose of creating the impression of a continuous-tone gray scale or color image.

doctor blade
a knife edge steel or plastic blade used to apply or remove ink from the cliché on a pad printing press.

doctoring
to add an ingredient to an ink to obtain better printing results.

doctoring edge (doctoring ring)
the sharp edge of the ink cup on a closed ink system on a pad printing press.

documentation
the systematic, orderly, understandable descriptions and records of policies and procedures that affect product and service quality.

DODISS
acronym for U.S. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards.

DOE
acroynm for design of experiments.

dome retainer
an adhesive layer designed to hold metal domes in the key switch.

dominant wavelength
a colorimetric quantity used to designate hue, which is one of the three quantities used in the C.I.E. specification of color.

dop
synonym for 2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate, a plasticizer used in some plastisol inks.

dope
slang term for cellulose ester lacquer.

doped lamp
an ultraviolet lamp where the spectral output has been changed by the addition of a dopant, such as beryllium or iron.

dose
the amount of a substance that enters the body over a specified period of time.

dose rate
in ultraviolet curing, the energy absorbed by the ink or coating per unit mass per unit of time, expressed as megarads per second.

dosing system
the device that dispenses electrostatically charged flock; may be a sieve, rotating drum or rotating brush and hopper arrangement.

dot
the individual element of a halftone (square, elliptical, or round).

DOT
acronym for U.S. Department of Transportation.

dot area
the percentage of the area that is occupied by the dots; the sum of halftone dots in relation to a given unit area such as twenty-five percent dot areas means 25% of the given area is covered by dots, with 75% representing the uncovered areas.

dot etching
a technique of altering dot size on halftone films to correct colors or adjust the hues of individual tonal areas.

dot gain
the optical increase in the size of a halftone dot during prepress operations or the mechanical increase in halftone dot size that occurs during printing.

dot matrix printer
a printer where each character is formed from a matrix of dots.

dot gain, mechanical
the physical growth of the area of each halftone dot.

dot gain, optical
the change in appearance of the halftone dot to the human eye at normal viewing distances and under typical lighting conditions, or with a densitometer.

dot pattern
an arrangement that represents the original art subject, the light and dark tones produced by varying size dots making up the whole image.

dot pitch
distance between the dots on a computer monitor, typically 0.2 to 0.3 millimeters. (The closer the dots, the sharper the image on the monitor).

dot size
relative area occupied by each dot composing a halftone negative, positive or print in relation to respective highlight and shadow areas in the image.

dot slurring
the smearing or elongating of the trailing edge on a printed halftone dot.

dot range
difference between the smallest printable halftone dot and the largest non-solid printing dot.

dot resolution
the integrity of a reproduced printed dot to the original represented on the film.

double coated paper
paper stock that has been coated twice on the same side with either the same or different material.

double crimp
occurs when both warp and chute wires are crimped to form woven wire cloth.

double earned safety lock
a lock used in displays that is rigid and permanent.

double edge lock pocket
a deep pocket that ships flat and is set up without cutting into the back of the display.

double face
(1) a sign or display printed on both sides of the material; (2) paper or other sheet substrate that has been prepared for printing on both sides.

double image
the appearance of extra unwanted dots in the image area of the print.

double MEK rub
a test procedure to determine solvent rub resistance, or state of cure where a pad of cheesecloth saturated with MEK (methyl ethyel ketone) is rubbed back and forth over a cured coating with moderate hand pressure.

double platform stand
a display part used as an easel and for storage of small items in the back of a display.

double-sided roller coater
a roller coating machine with capability of coating both faces or sides of a sheet simultaneously.

double twill weave
a pattern of weave for screen mesh where the threads are woven, over two under two; also refer to twill weave.

double wing easel
a display support with two fold-out segments, both locking at 90 degrees to the display background piece, used where the single wing type is not considered sufficiently strong; also known as akimbo, a double winged easel with wings spread widely to support a heavier load.

down-sampling
the process of receiving data from another computer, server or system. The reduction in resolution of an image, necessitating a loss in detail.

dpc
abbreviation for dots per centimeter.

dpi
acroynm for dots per inch.

DPIA
acroynm for Digital Printing & Imaging Association headquartered in Fairfax VA USA.

draft
(1) taper or slope of a vertical surface of a mold, designed to help removal of molded parts from the mold; (2) a difference of pressure that causes air or gas flow into a lehr or kiln.

draft gauge
an instrument used to measure small pressure differentials below atmospheric.

drag knife
a cutting blade that is mounted to turn freely.

draining test (of a coating)
reveals the variation in film thickness from top to bottom of a dip-coated strip prepared under specified test conditions.

draize test
a method for measuring skin or eye irritability to a chemical substance.

draw bar frame
a metal channel that holds a moveable bar within each side of a screen frame. Mesh is attached to the bars and the bars are moved by turning the adjustment screws to apply tension).

drawback
in woven fabric, a distortion caused by tightness and slackness in the same warp thread.

drawdown
a method of roughly determining color shade; a film of ink is deposited on a substrate by means of a smooth edge blade or cylindrical rod, to evaluate the undertone and mass tone of an ink.

drawdown device
a appearatice for producing controlled ink drawdown.

drawdown rod
a metal rod wound with fine wire, used to coat liquids evenly at a given thickness across a substrate; also refer to equalizer rod.

drawer easel
an easel for displays with a build-in drawer.

dri-release
a patented micro fiber of blended polyester and cotton or wool that provides a wicking action that removes moisture through the fabric and into the air.

drier
any substance added to an ink to hasten drying; organic metal compounds that are soluable in oily vehicles that are used to catalyze the transfer of oxygen from the air to the vehicle of the ink accelerating ink drying through oxidation and polymerization.

drier dissipation
a loss in catalytic power of a drier due to physical absorption or chemical reaction with certain pigments.

drift
(1) change in a reading or set point value over time, due to factors such as changes in ambient temperature or line voltage; (2) change in durometer of a squeegee blade due to chemical softening or extended use.

drip through
the dropping or running through the stencil openings of screen printing ink during shut down of the printing station, or during printing, by inadvertently pressing ink into the openings before the printing stroke.

drop out
the reduction or loss of small highlight dots from the original to the printed reproduction; a halftone with no screen dots in the highligt area.

drop shadow
a representation of a shadow under or around portions of a letter or letters in which the shadow effect is separated from the main body of the letter by space.

drum scanner
scanning equipment where the image rotates infront of scanning sensors that sharpen the image and convert RGB to CMYK.

dry crock
the tendency of a dry or cured ink film to lose pigment when abraded. indicates insufficient cure or too much pigment in the binder.

dry film thickness
the depth, expressed in mils or microns, of an applied coating thickness measured after drying or curing has taken place.

dryfoot
ware with no glaze on the foot.

dry offset (letterset)
a printing process that uses a blanket for transferring the image from plate to substrate, a relief plate, and no dampening system.

dry opacity
refer to hiding power.

dry rub resistance
the resistance of the dry surface of a coated or uncoated paper or paper board to disruption of the surface when subjected to rubbing or scuffing.

dry strength
strength of an adhesive joint, determined immediately after drying.

dry transfer (lettering)
images that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of a transfer sheet.

dry transfer photomechanical material
a group of photomechanical aids that permit direct application of textures, patterns, symbols, and letters to another surface.

dryer
a conveyor or static oven used to hasten drying of a wet material by subjecting it to heat generated by gas or electricity, or circulated ambient air.

drying
the multistage conversion of a material from a wet, liquid, or semi-liquid state to a dry, solid state by removing or setting the liquid.

drying in
premature drying or blocking of the stencil openings by ink in the mesh of the printing screen resulting in loss of detail in the printed image.

drying oil
additive that has the property of hardening to a tough film by oxidation and polymerization.

drying rack
a series of metal or wooden shelves of open construction designed to separate and hold printed substrates in sheet form for drying at room temperature or similar device for drying screens.

drying rate (drying time)
the relative length of time required for a freshly deposited ink imprint to be changed from a wet to a tack-free state.

drypoint positive
film positive made by scratching lines into sheet plastic and then filling them in with opaque ink.

dual-cure
an emulsion made up of two light sensitive components that cross-link during exposure to light; also referred to as diazo-photopolymer.

dual durometer
(1) a squeegee with two different hardness face materials; (2) silicone rubber keypad made by using a two shot process allowing for the use of material with two diffferent hardness characteristics.

ductility
ability of a material to deform before fracturing.

dull finish
any paper that is smooth, but lacks lustre.

dummy
mock-up or layout showing the position of illustrations, text, finishing, and other elements as they will appear in the final printed piece.

dunting
a cracking that occurs in fired ceramic bodies due to thermally induced stresses such as cooling faster than the ware can accommodate.

duograph
a little used term for duotone.

duo mounter
a machine where a sheet of cardboard is laminated to a paper sheet on one side and a liner sheet on the other.

duotone
a special effect technique that consists of making a two-color halftone reproduction from a single color original.

duotone printing
a process of printing two colors with halftone printing screens, placed at angles to diminish or elimate a moiré effect caused by overlaping of dots in a given pattern or patterns.

duping
refer to duplicating film.

duplex paper
a fine paper, cover weight with a different color or texture on each side.

duplex decal paper
a paper that consists of a thin tissue type paper that is adhered semi-permanently on a heavier base paper with adhesive coated on the tissue paper side used for larger decal production.

duplicating film
a one-step film used for producing a negative from a negative, or a positive from a positive.

durability
the degree to which a coating or material resists wear or destructive elements.

duration
the amount of time that something last.

durometer
the measurement of the hardness of rubber or polyurethane squeegee material measured on the Shore A scale.

durometer gauge
an instrument for measuring the degree of hardness of an elastomer or rubber such as a squeegee blade (lower number softer, higher number harder); also refer to shore hardness.

dust
any fine grain particles light enough to be suspended in air.

dusting
the release of filler particles or other fine materials from the surface of paper.

dwell
(1) a delay or pause between cycles of an automated press to allow feeding or unloading of print stock; (2) the amount of time heat is applied to a heat transfer during the application process.

dye
(1)a non-pigment coloring agent of mineral or vegetable origin with high penetration capability, used mainly in decorating of textiles. (2) coloring material that is soluble in a vehicle or solvent as opposed to pigments that are insoluble.

dye emulsion
screen printing ink of the emulsion type where dye rather than a pigment acts as the colorant.

dye ink (dye paste)
screen printing ink for textile decoration made by suspending dye in appropriate vehicle formulation with inert thickening agents.

dye migration
the movement of a relatively low-energy dye from cloth to the ink in a print caused by the application of heat, typically above 150 degrees C (300 degrees F); also refer to sublimable dyes.

dye pigment
dyestuff that are insoluble in water and can be used directly as pigments without chemical transformation.

dye sublimation
an imaging process that vaporizes colorant with heat and pressure and deposits it onto a substrate in order to simulate a continuous tone or line image.

dyed mesh
screen mesh that has been dyed a color usually yellow, orange, or amber to enhance the ability of the mesh to absorb UV light during stencil exposure.

dyeing
the act of applying a liquid coloring matter for imparting a particular hue to fabric.

dyeline processor
automatic film copier capable of processing both film and paper from a translucent original.

dynamic range
the measurable difference between the brightest highlight and the darkest value.

dynamic tension
the tautness of stretched screen mesh when increased by the applied load (force) of a printing squeegee.

dyne
a unit of force equal to the force that would give a free mass of one gram an acceleration of one centimeter per second.

E
symbol for exa in the metric system.
earth colors
pigments such as ochre, Venetian red, Indian red, the siemans, or umber all made from various ores and oxides found in the earth.

earthenware
glazed or unglazed porous nonvitreous ceramic whiteware.

easeling
the attaching of easels to displays.

easy release
a condition where the proper combination of adhesive product and liner or backing paper facilitates separation of the face sheet from the backing such as when neutralized, reflective, or laminated sheets are involved.

EDG
acroynm for electronic dot generation.

edge acutance
the edge sharpness of the printed image, controlled by the screen stencil, screen tension, ink thixotropy, and related factors.

edge curl
the tendency of a pressure sensitive sheet to deform or bend away from the surface to which it has been adhered.

edge definition
the sharpness and integrity of the image edge lines or data compared to the original represented on the film.

edge guide
refer to web guide.

edge sealer
a material designed to provide additional security and durability after application of a pressure sensitive product to a substrate.

edition
the size of a print run, particularly of fine-art prints or serigraphs, where the number of prints is limited, and each print is generally signed by the artist.

EEOC
acronym for Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (US).

effective resolution
the final appearance of a scan that has been enhanced to produce more data than the scanner can record. This is done by interpolation.

effloresce
to dry or crystallize into a white powder.

effluent
(1) waste material treated or untreated in liquid form; (2) the release of pollutants into a waterway.

Efflux cup
a simple viscometer such as a Zahn cup or Shell cup used to measure viscosity by the number of seconds required for the cup to empty through an orifice of known size.

EGA resolution
computer monitor resolution, which is typically 660 x 440 data (pixels) for the entire screen.

eggshell
(1) a slight gloss surface resembling an egg shell in color and texture; pale yellow to yellowish white; (2) a very thin transluscent prcelain.

eight sheet
a poster made up of eight individual sheets measuring 153 x 203 cm (60 x 80 in).

ejector pin
a device for knocking a cured plactic part from a mold.

EL
abbreviation for electroluminescence.

EL lamp
a thin 0.0103 to 6.35 mm (0.010 to 0.25 inches) illuminating device used to light large areas in liquid crystal displays, control panels and membrane switch backlighting.

elastic elongation
the stretching of a material and yet it retains the ability to return to its original length.

elasticity
the capability of a material to recover its original shape and size after it has been stretched or altered.

elasticity reserve
the extra resilience in a tautly stretched screen mesh that permits its conformance to moderate curvature in the substrate.

elasticity, modulus of
ratio of stress to strain exhibited by an elastically deformed material.

elastic limit
the maximum stress a material is capable of sustaining without any permenant change remaining after the stress is released.

elastic memory
refer to elastic elongation.

elastomer
a material at room temperature that can be stretched repeatedly to at least twice its original length and upon immediate release of the stress will return with force to its original length.

Elastane
the original name for Spandex™; term used in Europe.

electroformed printing screen
the direct conversion of electrical energy into light, through the use of a capacitive sandwich that includes a transparent conductive coating, a phosphor layer, and an opaque conductive layer, separated by a dielectric film.

electroluminescence
the direct conversion of electrical energy into light by solid phosphor subjected to an alternating electrical field.

electrolyte
(1) a non-metallic substance, when in solution or fused, is capable of conducting electric current; (2) chemicals (soda and silicate of soda) used to make slip more fluid for casting.

electromagnetic spectrum
the complete range of wavelengths and frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the longest radio waves including visible light.

electron beam
a continuous stream of electrons used to cure or crosslink reactive inks and coatings.

electronic dot generation (EDG)
process used in digital halftone production that allows negatives or plates to be generated by grouping micro dots into regular groups to function in the same manner as a photographically produced halftone.

electroplating
a process of depositing metal particles onto a conductive surface by electrolytic action.

electroscopic ink
finely ground, spherically shaped, dry particles of resin and coloring matter that take a static charge from the metal screen and are thus attracted through the openings in the stencil that forms the design to the grounded back plate.

electrostatic decorating
a method of decorating an article utilizing the phenomenon of opposite electrically-charged particles attracting each other such as flock or ink particles applied to a substrate by positively charging the particles and negatively charging the substrate.

electrostatic film
a PVC plastic sheet that has been electrostatically charged so that it “clings” to any highly polished surface without adhesive, offering easy removal and reuse capability.

electrostatic flocking
a process using an electrostatic charge to drive flock fibers into an adhesive that has been printed on a substrate.

electrostatic printing
an impactless imaging process where electrically charged, powdered colorant particles are transferred from the image carrier to a substrate and fused to the substrate to form a permenant image.

elliptical dot
an elongated oval shaped halftone dot that forms an image that tends to produce better tonal gradations across 50% tint area; also called a chain dot.

elliptical reflector
a direct light source reflector used in UV curing for focusing the energy onto a specific area.

Elmendorf test
a standard test for determining the tear strength of a material such as paper.

elongation
(1) loss of memory or irreversible change in the dimensions of a screen mesh that has been over-stressed; (2) the increase in length or width of a material produced by extending it to the point of rupture; (3) length of printed image stretched or increased in size; (4) the difference between the length of a mesh thread before and after tensioning.

elongation, ultimate
the maximum distance a material will stretch in a lengthwise direction before breaking, expressed as a percent of the original (unstretched) length.

em (em quad)
defined as a square equal in width and height to the height of the letter “m” in any size type, and used as a unit of measure for printing matter; also called the mutton.

embedment
a process where pre-screen printed graphics are placed within a translucent polyester resin containing fiberglass strands, to produce a durable outdoor sign or other item. (The graphics are printed onto rice paper or special embedment papers with cellulose inks).

emboss
mechanical and termoforming of graphic features, providing a rasised area for accenting key surfaces, logo, and to allow for embedding of surface mount LED within the switch.

embossed
a print or design made by using impress dies that create raised relief images on the surface of a material.

embossed pillow
a raised surface in the graphic overlay over the entire key area (0.10 to 0.015 high).

embossed rail (embossed racetrack)
a raised ridge around the perimeter of the key area (0.10 to 0.015 high).

embossing
a technique for impressing a design or texture into a sheet of material from the back of the sheet so that the design, though remaining an integral part of the sheet, extends forward toward the viewer.

embrittlement
the loss of plasticity in a material resulting in brittleness.

embroidery
the process of working with needle and thread to form raised decorative designs on fabric.

EMI
acroynm for electromagnetic interference.

EMI shield
a printed conductor pattern or separate aluminum or copper film used in a membrane switch to reduce the affects of electromagnetic and radio frequency interference.

emission curve
curve plotted on graph to indicate variances to and from peak performance of emitted light or other rays.

emission factor
the average amount of pollutants that will be emitted per unit of material manufactured.

emission standard
the maximum legal amount of a pollutant allowed to be discharged from a single source, either mobile or stationary.

emissivity
the ratio of energy emitted by an object to that emitted by a theoretical object that radiates the maximum amount of energy at the same temperature such as a blackbody.

emulsifying agent (emulsifier)
material used to facilitate the preparation of emulsions and to improve their stability.

emulsion
a liquid or semi-liquid light sensitive compound usually of silver halide grains in a thin gelatin layer.

emulsion coater
refer to scoop coater.

emulsion side
the side of the photosensitive stencil or photographic film that is coated with the light sensitive material.

emulsion speed
the rate of response to light under standard conditions of a light sensitive material.

emulsion up
refers to a photographic film positive or negative where the emulsion side is placed facing up for direrct contact with a photostencil.

en (en quad)
one-half the width of an em; a unit of measure in printed matter that is one half the width of an em; also called a nut.

enamel
(1) in glass decorating, a dry powder substance composed of a mixture of frit and inorganic pigment; (2) a screen printing ink or coating the dries hard and glossy; (3) a coated paper with a glossy surface.

enamel stock
coated paper with a hard, glossy surface usually obtained by calendering the clay impregnated surface.

encapsulated ink
ink or ink particles covered or enclosed with a coating to produce a free flowing dry system that can be activated by thermal change or physical pressure such as scratch and sniff ink.

encapsulated postscript (EPS)
Adobe format that translates graphics and text into a code that a printer can read and print.

endothermic
a chemical change or transformation that absorbs heat.

end point density
the highlight and shadow densities representing the desired dot reproduction at both ends of the halftone range.

engineer grade
a second grade reflective sheeting made to specifications for a variety of uses including highway signs; also referred to as diamond grade.

engineered prints
cut-sheet transfers (not continuous rolls) that may be individual products such as bath rugs or individual parts of a garment.

engineering control
any equipment, material, or process that reduces the source of a hazardous exposure.

engineering plastic
refer to high performance plastic.

English finish
a grade of book paper that has a smooth non-glossy paper finish.

enlargement
a reproduction or copy larger than the original; also called blowup.

enlarger
a device for projecting a photographic positive or negative onto a sensitized material or onto a wall of a darkroom for the purpose of obtaining a larger image.

enlarging
refer to enlargement and blow-up.

englobe
a slip or liquid clay used for decorating.

engobe
a slip coating applied to a ceramic body to mask the body color.

engraving
any recessed printing plate that is produced by an etching or cutting.

Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazone
standards organization in Italy.

entrapped carbon
dark carbon film between enamel/gold film and glass usually due to rapid firing or lack of oxygen in the lehr.

environmental influences
all conditions of weather, sunshine, heat, rain, and cold including gases that may be present in exterior exposure conditions; interior environment may include heat, humidity, vapors, fumes, and all other characteristics of surrounding atmosphere.

enzymes
composition derived usually from meat by-products which digest gelatin materials, i.e., photoscreen films, without harming the fabric.

Environmental Protection Agency (US)
a government agency formed to implement the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and subsequent environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act and Solid Waste Amendments.

EOQ
acroynm for European Organization for Quality.

eosin
a red crystalline powder used in textile dyeing and ink manufacturing; refer to phloxine.

EPA
acronym for the Environmental Protection Agency (US).

EPA hazardous waste number
the number assigned by EPA to each hazardous waste listed in 40 CFR 261 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations.

EPA identification number
the number assigned by EPA to each U.S.hazardous waste generator, hazardous waste transporter or hazardous waste facility.

EPS
acronym for encapsulated postscript; a vector based computer graphics file format developed by Adobe™ and is preferred format for computer illustrations because of its efficient use of memory and fine color control.

epoxy
a group of thermosetting resins having strong adhesive qualities, also capability of forming a very tough ink film with excellent chemical and environmental resistance.

epoxy plastic
plastic based on resins made by the reaction of expoxides or oxiranes with other materials such as amines, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, acid anhydrides and unsaturated compounds.

epoxy polyurethane
a general term for a film-forming system made up of isocyanate resins reacted with water (moisture cured) or hydroxy functional polyester, polyethers, or polyols and modified with an epoxy resin.

epoxy system
a system or systems using inks or coatings that require catalytic reaction in order to change from liquid to dry state.

Epson™ emulation
industry standard control codes for dot matrix printers, developed by Epson™.

EP toxicity (Extraction Procedure Toxicity)
a characteristic that a substance exhibits when the extract is tested in accordance with a procedure described in US Appendix II to 40 CFR Part 260 (or an equivalent method) and is found to equal or exceed concentrations of the contaminants shown.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
a US federal government commission that enforces anti-discrimination laws based on sex, race, or national origin.

equalization
an image processing technique where the range of tones or colors in an image file is expanded to produce a more pleasing image.

equalizer rod
refer to drawdown rod.

equilibrium constant
the product of the concentrations (or activities) of the substances produced at equilibrium in a chemical reaction divided by the product of concentrations of the reacting substances, each concentration raised to that power which is the coefficient of the substance in the chemical equation.

equilibrium moisture content
the point where paper or other material will neither gain nor lose moisture in a constant temperature and humidity environment.

equilibrium relative humidity
point where the moisture content of paper reaches equilibrium with the relative humidity.

equivalent weights
a mathematical calculation that provides an equal comparison of different size and ream weights of papers that have the same basis weight.

ergonomics
the application of biotechnology and engineered principles to improve convenience, ease of use, and operator comfort.

ERH
acroynm for equilibrium relative humidity.

errata
an acknowledgement of a printing error.

error diffusion
in electronic scanning, smoothing a rough area of a digital image by averaging the difference of adjoining pixels.

erythema
an irritation of the skin, typically exhibited by redness thatcan be caused by exposure to UV light rays.

ESMA
acroynm for European Screen Printing Manufacturers Association.

essence
special thinner used with lusters and brigt gold precious metal compositions.

E-stat
a shortened term for electrostatic.

ester
a class of organic compounds corresponding to the inorganic salts formed from an acid by the replacement of hydrogen by an alkl radical such as eyhyl acetate solvent and butyl phthalate plasticizers.

ester gum
the glycerol ester of rosin used as an ingredient in certain screen printing varnishes.

etch
(1) the result of application of hydrofluoric acid to a glass surface for making or decoration with a “frosty” appearance; (2) removal of unwanted portions of conductive metal not protected by resist coatings in printed circuit production; (3) change of character of any surface by chemical reaction.

etch imitation
a fired or baked on vitrerous enamal that produces a frosty or matte surface to simulate acid etch finish.

etchant
a chemical solution that has the capability of reacting to a surface brought into contact with the chemical, resulting in dissolving and removing the surface of the product being etched.

etched printed circuit
an electronic circuit or printed wiring pattern formed by etching away, by chemical action, unwanted portions of a conductive film, which portions are not protected by the imprint of resist ink or other media.

etching
(1) the process of forming a design or drawing on a metal or plastic plate; (2) a design or picture etched on a plate or a print made from an etched plate.

etch resist
a material or compound applied to portions of a product in process (usually in a pattern), prior to etching, to protect the covered portions from the action of the etchant.

ethyl acetate
a colorless, inflammable liquid with a fruity fragrance made by heating acetic and ethyl alcohol in the presence of sulfuric acid, used as a solvent.

ethyl alcohol
grain alcohol; a colorless limpid volatile liquid widely used solvent, where high volatility is essential.

ethyl cellulose
an ethyl ether of cellulose commonly used as a film former, soluble in most organic liquids and possessing generally good compatibilities with various resins, waxes, oils, and plasticizers; inert to alkalis and dilute acid; very common in the coatings industry.

ethyl cellulose formulation
a group of chemical coating compounds with the major film-forming constituent based on ethyl cellulose or ethyl hydroxyl, ethyl cellulose with appropriate solvents, modifying resins, plasticizers and pigmentation.

ethylene dichloride
frequently employed as an extractive agent to degum silk and cotton in the textile industry.

ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether
an active solvent used in lacquers and brushing enamels, also used as a retarder in some ink formulations, has fast rate of evaporation and high flash point.

ethylene glycol mono methyl ether
a glycol ether used in lacquers and as an intermediate for various plasticizers.

EU
acroynm for European Union.

European print stroke
the direction of the printing stroke found on many screen printing presses made in Europe, where the squeegee moves toward the front of the press during printing.

eutectic
any mixture of two or more components that melt at a lower temperature than the individual components, or any other mixture of the same components.

eutectic solder
most common solder compound of 68% tin and 37% lead with a melting point of 83.88ºC (183ºF).

evap
abbreviation for evaporation.

evaporate
to convert from the liquid to the vapor stage such as a solvent leaving a printed ink film during drying.

evaporation rate
the speed at which a solvent, or other volatile, changes into its vapor state; generally measured relative to butyl acetate, which has an arbitrary rate of 1.0.

EVA
acroynm for polyethylene vinyl acetate.

exa
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement which denotes 10 to the power of 18 (1018) or 1 000 000 000 000 000 000.0. Its symbol is E.

excitation purity
a relative colorimetric quantity used in designating depth of color. One of the three quantities used in the C.I.E. specification of color.

exhaust system
a system where a duct or flue, and/or blower system is used to remove air or gases from a dryer or lehr.

exothermic
the property of giving off or releasing heat; heat generated by a chemical reaction.

expanding corner frame
screen frame that has hollow metal section fitted with elbow in the corner that are designed to expand to tension the mesh.

expansion
an overall increase in the dimensions of a substrate.

expansion factor
correction factor for the change in density between two pressure measurement areas in a constricted flow.

explode
to burst suddenly and violently.

explosive
a substance that can explode.

exposure
(1) a predetermined length of time that a given photosensitive emulsion or film is affected by a controlled intensity of actinic illumination, product of intensity and time; (2) occurs when an employee is subjected to hazardous chemical; (3) the length of time that a material is exposed to environmental influences; (4) an individual prospective consumer’s sensual contact with a POP display or other advertising media.

exposure area
the area of a light sensitive material that is subjected to change by action of actinic light rays.

exposure calculator (graphic)
a circular slide rule or system of concentric dials for computing proper camera exposure by matching lens aperture, shutter speed, light intensity, and camera distance on the several dials.

exposure calculator (screen)
a inexpensive device used for determining the correct exposure time for photostencil films and emulsions.

exposure index
a number assigned to a photographic material to relate its speed to other photographic materials.

exposure latitude
(1) the range of camera exposures, from underexposure to overexposure that will permit acceptable reproduction; (2) the range of exposure for an emulsion coated screen that will permit acceptable reproduction with no loss of detail and still be fully cured.

exposure meter
an instrument that measures the intensity of light that is reflected from a subject or light that reaches the lens, indicating practical exposure recommendations and f-stop.

exposure test
a test made by exposing to actinic light sensitized films or coatings for a series of equal time intervals at a given distance from light sources, in order to establish standard time of exposure and standard distance of light from sensitized surface.

exposure time
the relative amount of time in seconds or minutes during which a photosensitive material is acted upon by light.

exposure unit
the light source or system used in exposing photostencil materials.

extender base (extender)
a non-pigmented transparent or white binder used to increase ink volume without reducing viscosity, which reduces the ink strength withour affecting its hue.

extender pigment
a pigment added to an ink to reinforce the color, but typically having little effect on opacity.

extensibility tester
instrument used to measure the elongation of a material by applying stress on the original cross-sectional area of the specimen.

exterior durability
a measure of the length of time a print will withstand outdoor exposure without appreciable loss of quantity.

extra spacious pocket
a display pocket with greater width, depth, or length, or any combination above the usual size.

extrusion
to shape by forcing through a die.

exudation
the migration of solid materials to the surface of a film.

eyelet
a rimmed metal or plastic grommet inserted into the holes of a banner or display for reinforcement.

eyeletting
the punching of small holes into a material for the purpose of attaching grommets, cords, or hooks for hanging.

F
abbreviation for Fahrenheit.
f
metric system symbol for femto.

fabric (cloth; textile)
planar structure produced from weaving, knotting, felting, knitting, binding or otherwise combining natural or synthetic fibers or filaments.

fabric, stencil
refer to mesh.

fabric stretcher
refer to mesh stretcher.

fabric tensioning
refer to mesh tensioning.

fabric thickness
refer to mesh thickness.

fabritecture
an historical term originated by Oscar Turner to indicate screen printing and the industry as a whole. (As architecture is building design by an architect, fabritecture was intended to embrace several related industry terms such as fabritect to indicate a screen printer. It’s usage is now obscure and limited).

face
the better looking side of the fabric.

face channel
a lighted sign component with back, sides, and translucent face.

face cut label
a die cut label where the matrix has not been removed.

face cutting
refer to kiss cutting.

face down
a decal designed for application to a transparent substrate through which the pattern or design can be viewed.

face material
(base material; body stock; face stock): any paper, film, laminate, or foil material suitable for converting into pressure sensitive decals that are attached to a backing or support sheet.

face plate
synonymous with fascia or overlay, refers to the top most area of a membrane switch.

face print
screen printing on the first surface of a transparent substrate, as opposed to printing on the back (reverse).

face slitting
cutting through the face sheet of a pressure sensitive laminate without cutting through the backing. (Slitting is done lengthwise of a web, or crosswise, in straight parallel cuts to form strips of desired width).

face stock
refer to face material.

face up
a decal designed for application to an opaque substrate that is read or observed from the same side as the application surface.

fade resistance
the property of a color or ink film that inhibits deterioration from environmental influences.

fading
partial or complete loss of color due to excessive sun exposure, humidity, or other environmental influences; a gradual “bleaching out” of the appearance of a color on a print.

fadeometer
an instrument used to measure the lightfastness of inks and materials under controlled and repeatable conditions.

Fahrenheit (F)
a widely used thermal scale in which the freezing point is 32 degrees and 212 degrees represents the temperature at which water boils at sea level.

faience ware
earthenware with a transparent glaze.

fake color printing
the printing of a transparent ink of one color overall or portions of a previously printed other color to a darker tone than either of the original colors. A third color is thus produced and, depending on the transparency of the inks, the third color may be a secondary hue, i.e., yellow on red to produce orange.

fake duotone
two color reproduction using a single halftone negative, usually black and the halftone screen tint for the background usually in color.

false body
a characteristic of an ink or coating which has more body or heavier viscosity that the pigment/vehicle ratio would indicate. A false body may be induced by adding a flocculent.

family mold
multi cavity mold where each cavity forms one of the component parts of the assembled finished object.

fancy finish
pattern textures in fine paper.

fan fold (zig zag fold)
pressure sensitive labels on a continuous backing put up in such a way as to form a flat pack as differentiated from roll form.

farad
a unit of capacity that will store one coulomb of electrical charge when one watt of electrical pressure is applied.

Farmer’s reducer
a chemical solution of potassium ferricyanide and sodium thiosulfate that is used to reduce the density and increase the contrast of developed film. (Named after its inventor Howard Farmer).

fascia
term used to designate the face or first surface of an item, as in “sign fascia.”

fashion knit
a broad category of garments generally depending on the material, the material pattern, or the color of the material. Fashion knits range all the way from tricots through combinations of polyester/cotton to some pure cotton fabrics.

fast color
a color which is resistant to the action of external agents such as light, acids, and alkalis.

fastness
the stability of colored pigments or dyestuffs under adverse conditions of light, acids, alkalis, etc.

fat
color and oil mixtures that flow well; good flow characteristics.

fatigue
condition of stress in a material resulting from repeated flexing or impact.

fatty
an excess of ink deposit, which enlarges a defined area.

faucet, safety
a faucet equipped with build-in flame arrester and self-closing lid used for withdrawing flammable liquid from drums.

FDA
acroynm for Food and Drug Administration (US).

FFC
acroynm for flat flex connector.

feather edge (feathering)
(1) the appearance of the edge of a printed area where the color or ink seeps out or is forced beyond the predetermined print edge, giving the edge a feathery ragged appearance or unsharp print edge; (2) image editing technique that allows the softening of the edge around a selection.

Federal Standard 595 (US)
color matching system developed by the US Government.

feed guides
refer to register guide.

feeder
a mechanical mechanism that separates, lifts, and passes individual sheets of substrate to be printed from the stock pile to the printing base, by means of grippers, belts or suction devices.

feed slots
round or rectangular registration holes placed in pressure sensitive or web stock to maintain register by feeding the stock over a series of pins on a roller arrangement.

feel (hand)
a term used to express the impression obtained by handling printed matter to judge its finish or general quality; (2) the degree of stiffness imparted to a textile by the application of a printed decoration.

feldspar
fusible rock that can be added to clay.

felt
a compacted material made from matted wool fibers, and traditionally used as a pennant material.

felt side
the top side of the paper, generally the smoothest side of paper and the preferred side for printing; also refer to wire side.

femto
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement which denotes 10 to the power of a negative 15 (10-15) or 0.000 000 000 000 001. Its symbol is f.

fense easel with platform
a display part providing a platform and a protective guard for merchandise samples.

FEP
abbreviation for fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymers.

ferrotype plate
a chrome plated or black enameled sheet of steel or mirror plated glass used to dry photographic prints to a high gloss finish.

ferrule
the metal band of a brush.

FESPA
acronym for Federation of European Screen Printing Associations.

festooning
suspending screen printed cloth, film or paper in long loops over rods or slats, so that printed surfaces do not contact, for drying purposes.

fettle
to remove fins mold marks and rough edges from dry or nearly dry ware.

fiber
(1) a thread-like filament either natural or manufactured, many times greater in length than in diameter; (2) wood particles used in papermaking.

fiber analysis
a microscopic process of determining the fiber content of a paper stock.

fiber optic backlighting
an illuminating device employed to light large areas, composed of strands of clear fibers that are woven, bundled, polished, and illunimated by LED or halogen lamp.

fiber reactive dye
a type of dye used on 100% cotton or rayon, expensive but has superior color fastness and brightness.

fibrillation
a shade change in colored fabrics caused by surface abrasion.

fiel stitch
series of running stitches commonly used to color large areas in embrodiery; also called Geflect stitch.

field of view
volume in space defined by a cone extending out from the focal plane of a camera.

FIFO
acroynm for first in, first out.

figure four easel
a type of easel used where interruption of attaching surface by construction, obstruction, etc., forestall application of single wing or double wing easels.

figure glass
flat glass having a pattern on one or both sides.

filament
a single continuous strand, fiber or thread.

fill
the illuminate material in a UV lamp that is activated by energy; typically mercury, although other elements are also used; refer to weft.

filler
(1) an inert substance added to plastic or ink formulations to reduce cost, add strength, and/or to provide bulk; (2) a material, generally nonfibrous, added to a paper mixture to increase smoothness or opacity.

fill-in
a condition in screen printing, or any method of printing, in which the spaces between the halftone dots are obscured by too heavy an application of ink or excessive flow in the ink.

filling-in
a condition in screen printing, or any method of printing, in which the spaces between the halftone dots are obscured by too heavy an application of ink or by excessive flow in the ink.

fill thread
another name for the weft thread in weaving.

film
(1) transparent support sheet coated with light sensitive emulsion for use in a camera; (2) indirect photoscreen stencil film; (3) any of the various thin sheet materials – transparent, translucent, or opaque – used as the face material in manufacturing pressure sensitive stock, and having a thickness usually not greater than 0.25 mm (0.010 in).

film adhesion
the relative quality of the bonding of a screen printing stencil film to the screen printing fabric.

film adhesive
class of adhesives in dry film form with or without reinforcing material that is cured by heat and pressure.

film backing
(1) the transparent sheet which carries the sensitized emulsion layer of photographic films; (2) the plastic or paper sheet which carries the photosensitive emulsion layer of a photographic screen printing stencil film, or the transparent plastic or semi-transparent paper sheet on which knife-cut stencil film is temporarily mounted.

film base
the transparent support material for the emulsion or gelatin coat.

film deposit
layer thickness of imprint on a substrate.

film emulsion
the light sensitive layer of the film which is coated onto the film base and which, on exposure and developing, forms the photographic image.

film former
type of resin with qualities which form a tough, dimensionally stable and continuous film.

film gauge
a number indicating the thickness of film.

film hardness test
any of a variety of test methods used to determine the hardness of an organic coating or ink on a substrate.

film image assembly
positioning, mounting, and securing various individual films to one carrier sheet in preparation for screen making.

film mesh counter
a piece of film with marked areas corresponding to mesh that allows the user to determine count per linear inch or centimeter when place on a backlit mesh.

film negative/reverse
a negative image made on photographic film.

film positive
a positive image made on photographic film.

film processor
machine for developing and treating photographic films and papers to produce permenent visible images.

film recorder
A device that records digital image data on film. Typically this device is used to produce photographic color transparencies and negatives, but the term also applies to image setters which produce films for printing.

film separation
the failure of either a photographic screen printing stencil (film), or knife-cut stencil film to adhere properly to the fabric.

film solvent
chemical used in removing knife-cut stencils or paper stencils from the fabric of the printing screen.

film thickness
the distance from one face surface to the opposite face surface of a film material usually measured in mils or microns.

filter factor
a number by which the exposure time is multiplied to compensate for light lost when light passes through a color filter on a camera lens.

filters, color
transparent colored glass or dyed gelatin discs (or squares) used in photography to modify light passing through the camera lens or light falling on a subject. Filters are used to separate colors in color separation work; they pass almost all of the light of the apparent color of the filter and hold back colors other than the color of the filter.

fin
(1) a seam imperfection in glass; (2) the feather edge on flat cut glass.

fineline resolution
the relative ability of a photostencil to form lines of a specific thickness derived from an imaged film master.

fine mesh
screen printing fabrics with relatively high mesh counts per centimeter or per inch and relatively small apertures between the threads.

fineness of grind
(1) the degree of dispersion of a pigment in a printing ink vehicle; (2) the fineness of pigment particle size measured with a grindometer or grind gauge.

fine pitch
refer to pitch.

finish
(1) the surface characteristic of a substrate; (2) the part of a container that holds the cap or closure.

finished art
art that is complete in all respects; a true prototype of the anticipated reproduction; camera-ready.

finishing
term generally applied to encompass post-press operations such as trimming, die cutting, and bindery.

fire cracks
cracks in ware caused by local thermal shock.

fire resistance
quality of a coating film to remain intact, resisting deformation by heat or flame.

fire retardant
a term indicating the ability of an ink or coating to (a) reduce the rate of flame spread on the surface of a material, or (b) resist ignition at high temperatures, or (c) prolong the time required by a substrate to reach its ignition, melting, or structural weakening temperature, under specified test methods.

firing
(1) a heat treatment process of fusing frit colors onto the articles to which they have been applied; (2) subjecting a glass or ceramic article, either before or after decorating, to high temperature to harden the article or fuse the decoration.

firing cycle
time and temperature firing curve in a lehr or kiln.

firing range
the range of firing temperatures in which a ceramic composition develops properties which make it commercially useful.

firing temperature
the peak temperature reached in a curing cycle.

firing time
the period the ware remains in the firing zone of a kiln or lehr to mature the article or the applied decoration.

firing zone
that portion of the furnace through which the ware passes and remains at or near the temperature necessary to mature the coating or decoration.

first surface
the outside or exposed area of a sign face or translucent material.

fishbone diagram
refer to cause and effect diagram.

fisheye
(1) a flaw in an ink film consisting of a generally circular dark pattern surrounded by a ligter color or halo; (2) a flaw in an emulsion coated screen that results in a generally circular thinning defect in the emulsion film.

fixed-focus
a camera lens that has been focused in a fixed position by the manufacturer and cannot be changed.

fixed off-contact
the distance between the screen and the substrate, which can be adjusted to various values, but once set, it generally remains fixed at that value during the print run.

fixing solution
a solution or bath which clears photographic film of the undeveloped chemicals.

fl
abbreviation for fluid.

fl oz
abbreviation for fluid ounce.

flag
a marker usually strips of colored paper or lightweight board, inserted in rolls of material or flat sheet stock extending from the edge to indicate a deviation from standard such as a splice or defect, or to mark a specific length or count.

flagging
(1) marking printed matter to indicate a change or correction; (2) up and down motion of goods in an embroidery hoop under the action of the needle resulting in poor registration, unsatisfactory stitch formation, and birdnesting.

flair
phenomenon where the color of an object changes in appearance under different illuminants; also refer to metamerism.

flaking
the detachment of small pieces of an ink or coating film either from the substrate or from a coating previously applied; generally due to a loss of adhesion.

flame blow-off
separation of flame from a burner when the velocity of the air/gas mixture exceeds the rate of flame propagation.

flameproof
resistant to flames; does not ignite.

flame resistant
a material that burns very slowly when in contact with flame or ceases to burn when a flame is removed.

flame retardant (FR)
(1) a chemical treatment used to abate or prevent combustion in a material; (2) chemicals used to reduce or eliminate the tendency of a resin to burn.

flame treated product
treatment of the surface of polyolefin plastic by passing the material through a gas/air flame to oxidize the surface, so printing inks and adhesives will adhere.

flammable
capable of catching fire easily and burning rapidly; having flash point below 37.8ºC (100ºF); also referred to as inflammable.

flammability
the capability of a material to support combustion, ranging from extremely easy to ignite to self-extinguishing.

flammable liquid
a liquid having a flash point below 37.8 degrees C (100 degrees F), except that this term does not include any liquid mixture having one or more components with a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees C which make up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture.

flammable solid
a solid, other than an explosive, that can cause fire through friction, absorption of mixture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or that can be readily ignited, and when ignited, will continue to burn or be consumed after removal of the source of ignition.

flange
the edge of displays folded back on scores approximately two inches in from each edge of the background piece to add strength to the display.

flannel
a soft woolen or worsted fabric, slightly napped on one side.

flash
extra plastic attached to a molding along the parting seam.

flash ager
a mechanical textile curing system capable of high volume curing. The decorated cloth passes through a heat zone into water and other finishing processes before final drying.

flash cure
semi-curing a plastisol print quickly using a special heat unit over the print area.

flasher set
an electric light assembly so wired that intermittent light is produced by spaced interruptions of the current.

flash exposure
a very short white light exposure made without a screen that supplements the main exposure (with a screen), used to accentuate detail and contrast in the highlight area of a halftone negative or positive; sometimes called a bump exposure.

flash point
the temperature level that must be reached before the material gives off sufficient vapor to form a flash if exposed to flame or spark; the lowest temperature at which the vapor of a substance will catch fire.

flash xenon
refer to pulsed xenon.

flat
(1) the stripped-up film positive or negative used to make a photostencil; (2) a print that lacks contrast color or brilliance; (3) a low gloss finish with little reflective quality.

flat-bed press
a screen printing press in which the substrate is placed on a flat surface prior to printing in contact with a flat printing screen which is attached by a carrier held on vertical posts or in clamshell fashion.

flat-bed scanner
equipment that uses CCD linear arrays, where the image is placed on a flat glass platen, and the array moves past the artwork.

flat flex connector (FFC)
connector commonly used to terminate membrane switch circuitry.

flat finish
a surface appearance that shows no gloss in reflected light.

flat-knit two-needle neck
any garment neckline where the binding is made out of flat, jersey-type knit material and sewed on a machine with a folder, which permits the body of the shirt to be inserted into the neck tape and attached with two needles.

flatting agent
any material added to reduce the gloss level of an ink or coating.

flat-oval
a term used to indicate a bottle or package that in cross section has an eliptical appearance and convex face surfaces.

flavanthrene yellow
an organic pigment with excellent lightfastness, good resistance to chemicals and bleeding.

flax
a plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained.

fleece
a knit or woven cloth with a deep, thick napped surface.

fleet marking
a pressure sensitive decal that is applied to a commercial vehicle to promote a company or its products.

flexible
pliable; capable of being bent or flexed.

flexible mold
cavities made of rubber or elastomeric material, used to cast plastic where they can be stretched to remove cured parts with undercuts.

flexible printed circuit
a printed circuit or conductive pattern placed on, or between, insulating layers which remain flexible after processing.

flexibility
the property of materials, measured under specific conditions, that permits them to be formed or bent to change their surfaces from a flat plane to a curve without rupture.

flexibilizer
material that is added to rigid plastic to make it resilient or flexible.

flexural strength
the relative ability of a material to withstand breakage by bending, measured by testing to determine the number of bends required to cause product failure.

flexographic printing
generally roll fed printing characterized by the use of flexible rubber or plastic printing plates with raised image area and rapid drying fluid inks; formerly called analine printing.

flexural modulus tester
instrument used to measure the deflection of a rigid or semi-rigid, non-cellular plastic in flexing, tension, compression or torsion by the application of a specific load.

flicker
a perceivable fluctuation of the brightness levels of a displayed image. This problem is often present in CRT monitors that have a vertical scan rate that is too low.

flint glass
(1) a lead containing glass; (2) a colorless glass.

float
in twill weave mesh, the area where one thread crosses over two perpendicular threads.

float glass
glass that is made by floating a ribbon of molten glass on a bath of molten tin to obtain surface flatness and gloss.

floating
tendency of pigment particles in a wet film to separate and concentrate in particular areas.

floating bar printing frame
a rigidly assembled screen printing frame which has extra, adjustable bars inside of two of the rigid sides, attached with bolts and wing nuts. The fabric is attached to the movable bars by which tension can be added, or register of the stencil adjusted.

flocculation
an aggregation of pigment particles in ink to form clusters or chains, usually accompanied by loss of color strength and change in hue in the printed ink layer; also called livering.

flocculant
an electrolyte added to a suspension to cause the particle to aggregate and settle out as a result of reduction in repulsion between the particles.

flock
very short and accurately cut fibers of rayon, nylon, polyester, acrylic, or similar material of vary in length and denier, intended for application to an adhesive coated substrate to produce a velvety appearance and texture.

flock adhesive
pigmented screen printing compound designed for the expressed purpose of adhering flock to the substrate.

flock balling
the conglomeration of flock into small clumps. Usually occurs when slender or milled flocks are dispensed from a rotating metal drum.

flocking
a process of applying very short fibers onto an adhesive coated surface to produce a velvety textured surface, can be applied by manual sifting, specially designed spray gun or electrostatic means.

flock transfer
produced when a screen printed adhesive has been applied to flocked paper to produce a design for application by heat transfer.

foil stamping
a mechanical process that results in the bonding of colored reflective material to a substrate.

flood bar
a device on a screen printing press comprised of a thin metal (or plastic) blade, which has the function of spreading a thin film of ink uniformly over the printing screen, in the opposite direction of and preceding the printing stroke.

flood coat
even coating of ink, which covers the image area of the screen, but is not forced through the image area.

flooding
(1) the tendency of pigment particles to rise to the surface during drying/curing producing a uniform color which is different from the surrounding color; (2) the application of ink to the top of a printing screen without printing, refer to flood coat.

flood stroke
a squeegee motion that deposits a layer of ink on top of the screen mesh under light pressure preventing the image from drying out between print strokes.

flop-over
a term designating the turning laterally of a film negative or positive so that the image direction is changed from one side to the opposite.

Florida 45
weathering test procedure where exposed panel is placed facing south at a 45 degree angle to the sun.

flow
(1) descriptive of ink printing media viscosity; (2) a moving together of the tiny segments of ink deposited on the substrate at the instart of printing to fill the spaces left by the mesh of the screen printing fabric; (3) the ability to spread over a surface; also refer to flow out.

flow agent
an additive used to disturb the surface tension and increase the ink flow, when bubbles or orange-peel occur.

flow chart
a graphic representation of the individual steps of a process that symbolically identifies items such as specific operations, forms, equipment, work and flow direction.

flow coating
a method of applying slip to glass or ceramic ware by continuous flow, used on flat ware shuch as tile.

flow dipper
a soldering device for printed circuits by means of which connections between components are made by dipping the board into the melted solder.

flowing-in
term describing the phenomenon of an ink running together after printing, obliterating much of the fine line resolution of the design being printed.

flow-mark
excessive waviness in linear printed surface of ink or in a plastic material.

flow out
the capacity of a screen printing ink to spread out on deposit for the purpose of covering the intersections left in the printed film by the threads or strands of the printing screen at the instant of printing, preventing mesh marks.

flow promoter
a substance which when added to an ink or coating system, usually in small amounts, will improve the leveling and finish continuity of the coating.

flow rate
actual speed or velocity of the fluid movement.

fluff test
testing the amount of fibers which are loose or insufficiently bonded to various substrates such as paper, boxboard, and cartons.

fluid medium
the vehicle or liquid used in a suspension.

fluid nozzle
the part of a spray gun that meters and directs the liquid in an air stream.

fluid ounce Imperial
a unit of measure of capacity equal to 1/40th of an imperial quart or 1,0408 fluid ounces, U.S. Its abbreviation is fl. oz., Imp.

fluid ounce, US
a liquid measure equal to one-sixteenth of a pint or to 29.573 millimeters; abbreviation is fl. oz.

fluidity
the ease of flow of a material, measured in units of rhe; the greater the viscosity the less the fluidity.

fluorescence
the emission of elctromagnetic radiation especially in the form of visible light by certain substances called phosphors, as a result of absorption of other radiations such as an electric discharge or an ultraviolet light.

fluorescent
a pigment which not only reflects a visible wavelength but is activated by most of the remaining absorbed light to re-emit it as color of a longer wavelength, which results in reinforcement of the reflected color.

fluorescent exposing unit
a self-contained unit consisting of a bank of fluorescent lamps of high actinic value for evenly exposing light sensitive materials such as photostencil film or emulsion, and a vacuum blanket for holding the stencil film or screen frame.

fluorescent ink
ink formulated with pigments that are capable of absorbing energy in the blue or ultraviolet end of the spectrum and re-emitting it in the form of light in the visisble wavelengths.

fluorescent paper
paper that has light reflecting qualities, which is the direct result of optical bleaching additives in the form of fluorescent dyes making them whiter than white.

fluorescent white
(1) colorless dyes or pigments which increase the business of paper by absorbing the UV energy and re-emitting it as visible light; (2) “white” paper containing fluorescent material.

flush
refers to an object that is mounted directly to a surface, with no raised surface space between, i.e.: “Flush Mount Letters.”

flushing
a method of transferring pigments from dispersions in water to dispersions in oil by displacement of the water by the oil.

flutter
the usually undeniable action of a paper or cardboard sheet activated by drafts of air when passing through a forced air drying system in which the sheet vibrates above the carrying belt.

flux
(1) a metal cleansing compound that chemically degreases and cleans metal preparatory to soldering; (2) in ceramic and glass decorating, a material that induces flow and adhesion in glazes; (3) a material or mixture that promotes fusion; (4) a form of low melting glass that forms the permanent vehicle in glass and ceramic enamel; refer to frit.

fluxer
a device for applying soldering flux.

flying spot scanner
equipment in which the original is held inside a dark chamber, while a beam of light flies across it in a raster pattern.

FM (Frequency-Modulated Screening)
A dithering method that uses uniform dot sizes and varies the distance between them. This method is different from conventional halftone screening, which aligns dots of varying sizes on a regular grid.

foam board
a family of rigid, foam centered sheet and boards, made of a variety of laminate materials.

foaming agents
chemicals added to plastic and rubber that generate inert gases on heating, causing the resin to assume a cellular structure.

focal distance
the optimum distance between UV lamp/reflector and substrate for radiation curing.

focal length
(1) the distance from the optical center of the lens or mirror to the ground glass or film plane on which an object at infinity is in sharp focus; (2) the distance from the lens to the sensitized surface (film) when the lens is focused on an object at infinity distance.

focal plane
a plane or surface on which a lens forms a correctly focused image.

focus
(1) point at which rays of light meet after being reflected or refracted; (2) adjustment of the distance setting on a lens to sharply define the subject.

fog
a veil of siver of low density on a photographic material.

fogging
darkening or discoloring of a negative or photographic print.

foil
(1) a very thin metal sheet which can be used as a screen printing substrate, or in chemical milling, as a raw material for the production of miniature and sub-miniature metal parts, usually less than .006 inch (0.15 mm) in thickness; (2) donor medium for thermal transfer printing.

foil decoration
molding paper, textile, or plastic foil printed with compatible inks directly onto a plastic part, so that the foil is visible below the surface of the part as integral decoration.

foil emboss
the embossing of a substrate with the addition of foil.

foil paper (foil laminate): very thin metal sheet laminated to a paper backing or support sheet, usually with permanent adhesives for use as a single element substrate.

folding box easels
a display part used for supporting merchandise in cardboard displays.

folding box lock
a type of lock arrangement commonly used to hold display segments made of lightweight stock.

folding endurance
the number of folds under specified conditions in a specified instrument which a specimen will withstand before failure. In the usual test, a specimen is subjected repeatedly to double folds through a wide angle while under tension.

folding strength
refer to folding endurance.

folio
page number.

folio size
a cut size paper greater than 27.9 x 43.2 cm (11 x 17 inches).

font
a complete assortment of type of one particular size and type face style.

foot
(1) a linear measure equal to 12 inches, one-third of a yard or 30.48 centimeters; abbreviation is ft; (2) the bottom edge of a sheet.

foot candle (lux)
a unit for measuring the amount of light emitted by a source; one lumen per 9.290 square decimeters (square foot); a unit of illumination equivalent to that produced by a standard candle at the distance of 0.3048 meters (one foot).

foot, cubic
refer to cubic Ffoot.

foot lambert (FL): a measure of brightness; one FL is the brightness exhibited by a white piece of paper, one foot away from a candle.

footprint
the edge of the squeegee which comes into contact with the screen mesh, usually no more than a few mils in width, and the length of which will equal the overall width of the squeegee blade. Rounded-edge squeegee blades will have a larger footprint than sharper ones.

forced air system
refer tp force drying.

forced development
increasing the development of film to increase its effective speed (raising the ASA number for initial exposure), to compensate for low-light situations; also called push-processing.

force drying
any system of drying of screen printing inks, industrial coatings, or other materials by application of influences beyond normal atmospheric conditions,such as by forced air flow at ambient temperature or heated air.

force travel curve
the relationship between actuatuion force and switch travel expressed as a line switch.

Ford cup
refer to Zahn cup.

fork lock
a simple lock for insertion of changeable display cards.

formability
the act of thermoforming without affecting the strength, flexibility or clarity of the material.

format
(1) the layout and physical appearance or arrangement of characters such as shape, size, type, and overall design of printed matter. (2) Characteristic identifying size of printer, media, or graphic, according to width of media roll, printer’s print area, or graphic. Mediam Format is generally taken to be between 11″—24″ in width; Large Format (Wide Format) larger than 24″ in width, and Grand Format larger than 72″ in width.

forming
process of shaping rigid plastic into three-dimensional form by applying heat and pressure.

fountain
the ink reservoir on a screen printing press.

fountain roller
the roller in the ink fountain which, by revolving, agitates the ink.

four color halftone
a halftone print composed of four colors (magenta, yellow, cyan and black) deposited in a very small dot pattern, which by proximity or overlapping have the capacity to form all intermediate tones.

four color hues
magenta, cyan, yellow and black.

four color process printing
a system of photographically reproducing an illustration or design to produce all colors in the original by using magenta, cyan, yellow and black ink printed through color-separated halftone printing screens.

four color separations
term applied to negatives, positives, or stencils each having the ultimate printing responsibility for one of the four colors used in four color process printing; namely, magenta, cyan, yellow and black. (Separations may be made with a process camera or by electronic scanner devices.)

four-post press
a flatbed screen printing press where the screen carriage is mounted on four vertical posts and the vacuum bed moves forward for loading and back for printing.

fpm
abbreviation for feet per minute, used in the measurement of surface speed.

FPO
acroynm “for position only.”

FR
acroynm for flame retardant.

fractal
mathematically generated pattern that is reproducible at any magnification or reduction.

fracturing
sometimes found at the high stress points of a mechanical emboss due to stretching the sidewalls of the material.

frame
refer to chase, printing frame, vacuum frame.

frame adhesive
special bonding agent that holds the screen mesh in place on a static or rigid frame.

frame clamp
refer to screen holder.

frame profile
wall thickness, shape, and design of a frame member as seen in cross section.

frame strength
property enabling screen frame to hold tension and retain profile without distortion.

free mesh area
the area of the mesh that lies between the inside of the frame and the image area of the stencil.

free moisture
liquid that will drain freely by gravity from solid materials.

free radical
a reactive material which initiates polymerization in UV curable formulations, generally by the loss of an electron.

free shrink
the irreversible and rapid reduction in linear dimension of a plastic film exposed to given temperatures, expressed as a percentage of the original dimension. Also designated as unrestrained linear thermal shrinkage.

freeze point
the temperature at which a liquid becomes crystalline or solid.

frequency
(1) the number of periods or cycles per second of an alternating electrical current, expressed in units of Hertz; (2) point-of-purchase exposure, the number of times an individual sign or display is exposed to individuals within a specified time period.

frequency modulated screening (FM)
a dithering method that uses uniform dot sizes and varies the distance between them.

French crystal
a translucent matte glass color that gives the effect of acid etching or sandblasting when applied to glass and fired.

French fold
a sheet that is printed on one side and then folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.

friction feed
process where material is moved by placing it between a motor driven grit wheel and two tensioned pinch rollers.

frilling
describes (indirect film) gelatin emulsion which is falling off of its polyester base due to lateral swelling in the hardening bath, caused by weak chemistry or too high temperature.

fringe
refer to halo.

frisket knife
a thin-handled knife used for cutting stencils.

frit
a smelted mixture of soluble and insoluble materials forming a glass, which when quenched in cold water, shatters into small friable pieces, used in aluminum enamels, glass enamels, and overglaze colors.

frit furnace
a smelter used for melting frits and fluxes.

fritting
the rapid chilling of a molten glassy material to produce frit.

front score
a cut score made in the front face of card stock.

frost
a roughened glass surface produced by immersing the article in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride compounds.

frosted
the surface of glass that has been treated to scatter light reflections to simulating frost.

f-stop
fixed sizes at which the apperature of the lens can be set; a number established by dividing the focal length of a lens by the diameter of the lens opening.

ft
abbreciation for foot.

ft2
abbreviation for square feet.

ft3
abbreviation for cubic feet.

fugitive colors
inks made from pigments or dyes which are not greatly light resistant and which lose color rapidly when exposed to light, heat and other environmental influences.

full bleed
printing term used when an image or background extends to the final trim edge of a printed page.

full color printing
term used to mean four color process printing, though a fifth or sixth color may also be added.

full contact printing
screen printing in which the printing screen is in contact with the substrate at all points during the printing stroke.

full scale output
the algebraic difference between the minimum output and maximum output of a device.

fumaric resin
synthetic hard resin formed by the reaction of fumaric acid and rosin.

functionality
the capacity of any molecule to react to a free radical in a UV curable formulation.

furlong
a customary unit of measure equal to 1/8 statute mile, 40 rods, 220 yards, or 201.17 meters.

furnace
an enclosure where heat is intentionally generated by combustion of gases or electrical resistance methods.

furnace black
a form of carbon black obtained by decomposing natural gas and/or petroleum oil under controlled conditions in a furnace and precipitating the pigment in special chambers.

furniture
wood or metal blocks used to fill-up the blank spaces in a chase.

fused glass
glass formed by placing different pieces of glass in contact with each other, then firing them in a kiln at high temperatures to fuse them together.

fusible backing
backing material that adheres to a substrate under heat and pressure to which the glue side of the backing is applied.

fusion
the act or procedure of liquefying or melting together by heat; the uniting of various elements into a whole as if by metling together.

fuzz
attached fibers extending from the surface of paper or cardboard. Not to be confused with Lint which is loose on the surface.

fuzzy texture
a defect characterized by a myriad of minute bubbles, broken bubbles, and dimples in a enamel surface.

G
symbol in metric system for giga; acroynm for additive primary color green.
g
(1) symbol in metric system for gram; (2) abbreviation for gravitation constant.

gable roof lock
a type of display lock used in gable roof construction.

gal
abbreviation for gallon, US.

galley
a shallow metal tray used to hold type.

gallery camera
refer to process camera.

galley proof
a reader proof taken of type in a galley before it is formated into pages.

gallon, Imperial
a unit of volume in the British Imperial System used in liquid and dry measure equal to 4,546 liters, abbreviation Imp gal.

gallon, U.S.
a unit of volume or capacity in the US Customary System used in liquid measure eqal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters, abbreviation gal.

galvanized
process of coating steel frames with rust resistant zinc.

galvano screen
specialized rotary screen used for long runs on a rotary screen printing press.

gamma
(1) a measure of contrast in photographic images; (2) mathmatical curve representing both contrast and brightness of an image.

gamma correction
a non-linear tonal correction, editing an image gamma curve.

gamma curve
the shape of a line connecting the input and output values responsible for generating an image.

gamut
greatest possible range.

gamut chart
a small text image for evaluating the reproducible colors in process color printing.

gamut color
the cleanest, most saturated color that can be reproduced by a set of process inks on a given substrate.

gamut compression
editing an image to reduce the color gamut so that the image can be displayed or output within the limits of a particular device.

gamut mapping
plotting the color of an image into the CIE color space.

ganging up (gang): the reproduction of a number of differnent jobs or multiples of a single job that print as a single impression.

garment discharging
a process that allows the printing of dyed-dark textiles with light colored designs, by using sulfoxylate reducing agents with special dyes; refer to discharge printing.

gas chromatography
an analytical instrumental method of determining the composition of volitale solvents and oils.

gas crazing
under certain drying conditions the wrinkling of a printed film produced with tung oil.

gas mixer
a control valve for mixing air and gas.

gate
orifice through which liquid resin enters the mold in plastic molding processes.

GATF
acronym for Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (US).

GATF star target
a quality control aid composed of a circular target approx. 17cm (5/8 in) with pie shaped wedges of lines that converge in the center. (It is printed with color bars on the edge of a press sheet to detect dot gain, slur, and double images).

Gaussian blur
an image softening effect utilizing a bell shaped Gaussian distribution curve.

gauge
(1) any of various instruments or tools for precise measuring; (2) to measure exactly; (3) a standard of measure, dimension, or capacity.

gauze
an European designation of a class of screen printing fabrics comprising both silk and synthetic fibers.

GB
acroynm for gigabyte.

Gb
acroynm for gigabit.

GCR
acroynm for gray component replacement.

Geflect stitch
refer to fiel stitch.

gel
(1) a state or condition where an ink or vehicle demonstrates a semi-solid or jelly-like consistency; can refer to deterioration to an unworkable condition; (2) partially cured plastisol ink that is dry to touch 79º-116ºC (175º-240ºF) but not completely cured 135º-171ºC (275º-340ºF).

gelatin
a glutinous protein type colloid used as coating for photographic film and screen emulsions.

gelatin emulsion type film
any photosensitive film, or one that can be rendered photosensitive that is compounded to be water-soluable on a colloid base.

gelatin stencil
a screen printing stencil made from gelatin, colloid emulsion or film.

gel point
the stage at which gelatin begins to form into a semi-solid consistency.

generation loss
the loss of quality that is unavoidable in any type of analog duplication, not present in digital duplication.

generator
any person or company that produces hazardous waste as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

generic
not identified by a specific trademark or tradename.

geometric distortion
image deformation in a uniform manner.

geometric printing
to the screen print fabricated objects other than flat sheets such as glassware, cylindrical, spherical, and other irregular shapes.

germicidal lamp
a low pressure mercury-vapor lamp operating between one and ten watts per linear inch, and used as a UV energy source in conjunction with those units utilizing an inert atmosphere.

ghosting
(1) an image of the printed design or copy that extends beyond the limits of the stencil, usually with less ink deposition than the intended print area, caused by the slight creeping of improperly stretched screen mesh; (2) wet-on-wet printing, resulting in offsetting of wet prints onto the back of the screen.

ghost image
(1) ink stains on screen mesh that were not removed during screen cleaning and reclaiming; (2) image that remains on a substrate after chemically removed or washed..

giclée (Fr. “a spraying of ink”)
term for fine-art digitally produced prints.

GIF
acronym for Graphics Interchange Format; an eight bit (256 colors or shades of gray) or less computer file format used to post photographic images to bulletin boards.

giga
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the ninth power (109 ) or 1,000,000,000; symbol is G.

gigabyte (GB)
an electronic unit of measure equal to one thousand megabytes or one billion bytes.

giga ohms
measure of electrical resistance in a dielectric material.

GIGO
acroymn for garbabe in garbabe out.

Gilsonite
trademark of a natural black bitumen sometimes used in the formulation of black printing ink.

glacial acetic acid
a chemical used in fixing baths and in stock hardener solution that is 99.8% pure.

glass
(1) refer to loupe; (2) an inorganic product of fusion that has couled to a rigid condition without crystallizing.

glass blowing
the forming or shaping of molten glass by air pressure.

glass ceramic
a material melted and formed as a glass, then crystallized by controllled heat treatment.

glass colors
colored glass flux or enamel used to decorate glass.

glass etch
any of several compounds that permit the frosting of glass by acid based screen printing directly on the ware.

glass transition temperature (Tg)
midpoint of the temperature range over which a material undergoes a phase change from brittle to rubbery or visa versa.

glassine
a class of smooth, lightweight, dense paper that is usually semi-transparent and coated on one or more faces with silicon or similar agent that inhibits adhesion to another surface; once used as a stencil material.

glaze
a vitrous mixture of complex borates and silicates, either colored or clear, that attaches itself firmly to the body of ceramic ware, imparting a gloss and smoothness to the surface.

glazed paper
paper with a high gloss or polish.

glitch
minor unexpected malfunction, mishap, or technical problem.

glitter
small bits of light reflecting decorative material added to a material or ink to achieve a sparkle appearance in the final product or print.

glory hole
an opening in a furnace for the purpose of reheating glass during hand fabrication.

gloss
the relative degree of shine or luster of a substrate or material, the higher the light reflectance from the surface, the more shiny the substrate.

gloss ink
an ink that dries with minimum penetration into the substrate surface and that yields a high shine or luster.

glossmeter
an instrument used to measure the specular reflectance of light from a surface of a material at a given angle.

glossy print
a photographic print that has a shining finish.

glost
glazed ceramic ware.

glost fire
to kiln fire bisque ware to which glaze has been applied.

glost kiln
kiln for firing glaze on ceramics.

glueability tester
instrument used to test the strength of a bond formed between an adhesive and a material, by mechanically separating them until the adhesive bond breaks, with measurement readings in pounds of glueability.

glue pot
a heated receptacle used to melt thermo material prior to use.

glue screen
a printing screen for the application of adhesives.

gluing machine
a mechanical device for applying adhesive to a substrate.

glycerin
an oderless, colorless liquid C3H5(OH)3 of the alcohol class used as a solvent in the manufacture of alkyd resins and ester gum type inks.

glycol
alcohol containnig two hydroxyl (-OH) groups.

glycol ether
a chemical family of solvents, some of which have been used in screen printing ink formulations; includes 2-methoxyethanol, 2- ethoxyethanol, and their acetates that are now restricted in US due to toxicity.

gob
a glob of molten glass delivered to a mold for forming.

gold caratage
a measure of purity or fineness of gold. (24 karat represents pure gold).

gold ink
a metallic screen printing ink which has the appearance of metallic gold.

golden rod paper
a specially coated yellow or orange masking paper used to assemble and position negatives for exposure to press plates.

goniometer
an instrument used to measure contact angles of droplets placed on a substrate surface to indicate surface energies/wetting capabilities.

Gosudarstvenny J Komitet Standartov
standards organization in Russia.

gothic style letter
letter that is without serifs, small spurs, or extensions at the terminals such as a sans serif typeface.

gouache
a method of painting with opaque colors that have been ground in water and mingled with a preparation of gum.

gout
a clump of any foreign body trapped in a fabric during the weaving process.

gpd
abbreviation for grams per denier.

gr
abbreviation for grain.

gradation
gradual change of tones from one shade to another.

grade
to determine a type, category for various papers and cloth.(Paper grade categories are bond, uncoated book, coated book, text, cover, board, and specialty).

graduate
a container or vessel with markings on it for measuring volumes of liquids; also called beaker.

graft polymer
polymeric structure made by attaching monomers to long-chain molecules.

grain (gr)
(1) in paper, the direction in which the majority of the fibers lie; (2) smallest unit of weight used in American system of measuring based on the weight of a grain of wheat equal to 0.0648 gram; (3) fine textured appearance of a negative, print, or transparency resulting from the clumping of silver grains. (4) the smallest component of a photographic image. A single particle of silver or dye cloud. Collectively, the size of those particles.

graininess
an effect seen in the print as randomly occurring light and dark specks or grains, due to roughing of the edges of halftone dots, random specks of ink between dots, discontinuous ink films, or specular reflectance off inked fibers in the surface of the paper.

graining
the application and firing of one colored enamel over another to imitate a natural wood or marble finish.

grain long
the fiber direction in a sheet running parallel to the length of the sheet.

grain short
the fiber direction in a sheet running parallel to the short dimension or width.

grainy
small variations in the surface appearance of paper often caused by irregular distribution of color.

gram
unit of mass and weight in the metric system; the weight of one cubic centimeter of water at standard conditions; 28.35 grams equal one ounce; 453.6 grams equal one pound.

grammage
the weight of a square meter of paper, expressed in grams per meter squared (g/m2).

grand format/superwide
72″ or greater width digital print machines or media. Their printing process was usually driven by air, but recent machines may piezo-print directly on a substrate.

granite wash
chemical or mechanical process that takes dye out of a garment to create a cracked look.

granularity
non-uniformity of photosensitive film emulsion, causing light scatter.

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF) (US)
a scientific, technical, and educational organization serving the graphic arts industry conducting research into graphic processes and applications, headquartered in Pennsylvania.

graphic overlay
the front panel containing the graphics in a membrane switch or other industrial application.

graphics interchange format (GIF)
a photograph or drawing stored in electronic form for viewing on a computer.

graphics tablet
a device that allows the user to plot position points on a tablet using a pen or stylus to input drawing coordinates.

graphite paper
a type of carbon placed beween acetate paper and porcelain.

gatefold
an oversized page where both sides fold into the gutter in overlapping layers.

generic fiber codes
acronyms developed by the International Standards Organisation for manufactured fiber.

golden ratio
a rule devised to give proportions of height to width when laying out text or images to produce the best optical appearance.

gravure printing
an intaglio printing process where the ink is carried in minute etched cells on the plate, the excess being removed from the surface by a doctor blade; also known as rotogravure printing.

gray balance
the combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow halftone dots that yield a neutral gray tint without hue for a specific press, substrate, and ink combination. (Gray balance elements are targets made up of overprints of cyan, magenta, and yellow halftone tints that are intended to appear as a neutral gray with no hue).

gray component replacement (GCR)
an electronic color scanning technique that determines the amount of black ink to be used to replace cyan, magenta, and yellow in areas where those three inks overlap; also refer to achromatic reproduction.

gray contact sheet
similar to the magenta contact screen except that the dots are gray in color and are sharper than the magenta screen.

grayed-down
a process of mixing black or the complement of the color to make the color gray; a neutral, muted variation of a pure color.

gray goods
fabric that has been removed from the loom, before any finishing or dyeing, also referred to as grey or greige goods.

gray levels
the number of steps available to reproduce a color in an imaging system. Typically, in an 8 bit system there are 256 gray levels per color.

gray scale
(1) a range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black; (2) a reflection or transmission scale of gray tones in steps from clear or white at one end to black at the other, with steps in-between showing evenly intensified series of gray tones. (It is attached to the original design or copy to determine accuracy of exposure and uniformity of color separations. Patches of yellow, cyan and magenta are included with the scale when photographing for color separations); also referred to as gray or step wedge.

gray scale continuous
continuous tone black and white image on film where the density gradually increases from zero.

grayness
attribute calculated from density readings that relate to the degree of three-color contamination in cyan, magenta, and yellow process color ink.

grease proof ink
ink or coating that is resistant to the action of fats, oils and greases.

green
one of the three additive primary colors of light.

green strength
(1) mechanical strength of an unfired ceramic greenware body; (2) the ability of an adhesive to hold two surfaces together when first contacted, but before the adhesive has developed its ultimate bonding properties (when full cured).

greenware
a formed ceramic article that has not been fired.

greige goods (gray goods)
knitted fabric in roll form before finishing.

grin through
loss of color saturation that occurs in knitted textiles when they are stretched and the undyed fiber shows through the printed design.

grinding
the process of pulverizing raw materials to a desired degree of particle size.

grindometer
instrument used to indicate the presence of coarse particles or agglomerates in an ink dispersion. (The fineness of grind is rated at the point on the scale where oversized particles first appear in concentration).

gripper edge
the leading edge of the substrate as it passes through the press.

gripper margin
an unprintable blank edge of a substrate on which the grippers bear usually 12.7 mm or _ inch or less.

grippers (gripping fingers)
mechanical fingers on a press that grasp or hold a substrate for positioning.

grit
the abrasive material on a grinding belt or wheel used for sharpening squeegee material.

grog
small particles of sand, bisque, or quartz that are added to a clay body to give it strength.

grommet
(1) a metal reinforcement, usually in the form of a round ring, mounted in the edge or corners of a printed banner for hanging; (2) a small rubber ring used to insulate a printing screen used in hot ink screen printing.

grommet and washer with teeth
a metal ring that is permanently attached by means of teeth in the washer.

grommeting
the process of applying metal reinforcements (grommets) into holes punched in edges or corners of a banner, display, or sign unit for the purpose of hanging.

ground glass
a sheet of glass that is translucent at the back of a camera that can be moved into the focal plane in place of the film holder and used to assist in focusing the image.

grounding
the creation of a connection capable of transferring a static or electrical charge to earth ground.

growth
(1) expansion of graphic out of register due to screen stretch; (2) expansion of material due to mechanical embossing.

gsm
an acronym for grams per meter, a unit of measurement for paper weight.

GUI (Graphical User Interface)
abbreviation for Graphical User Interface, a computer operating or control system that applies graphics for the operator to command the computer with a mouse or stylus.

guide pin
a pin that aligns closing mold halves.

guide edge
the side of a substrate that is at a right angle to the gripper edge.

guides, register
stops on the printing base against which edges of substrate are placed for printing to ensure that all substrates are being printed in identical areas or positions.

guillotine
a manual or electronic paper cutter with a straight blade that raises and lowers with the downward action being the cutting portion of the cycle.

guillotine cutting
the cutting of stacked sheet stock by straight line cutting with a suspended blade.

gum
a water soluable substance that hardens when exposed to air that is used as a resinous binder in ink and varnish formulations.

gum arabic
a water soluble organic gum of various species of acacia used as a binder in ceramic glazes and colors and other ink formulations.

gum tragacanth
(1) an orgain material of vegetable origin used as a binder in glazes and enamels; (2) an organic substance of vegetable origin used as a binder in water vehicle solutions, particularly those containing gelatins used in making photoscreen stencils; similar to gum arabic.

gusset
an added structure used to strengthen a formed plastic object.

gutter
(1) the taped interior edges of the screen parallel to the direction of the squeegee; (2) the white space along the inside margins of facing pages.

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~ by Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار on March 28, 2000.

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