Image Dictionary H I J K L M N

H
abbreviation for hue.
h
symbol in metric system for hecto

hairline register
very tight register of color to color or dot to dot with a standard tolerance that is within one-half row of dots.

hairlines
fine lines appearing in fired enamel on glass, ceramic ware, or on the surface of drying organic inks or coatings.

halation
(1) blurring or spreading of light on a photographic positive or negative, diffusing image detail; (2) the scattering of exposing light rays reflected off screen mesh threads, thereby affecting resolution of the stencil image.

halftone
a reproduction of continuous tone artwork such as a photograph through a crossline or contact screen or by digital generation that converts the image into dots of various sizes.

halftone dot count
refer to halftone line count.

halftone dot resolution
the ability of a printing screen to accurately reproduce a halftone dot of a specific shape and size.

halftone line count
the number of rows of dots per centimeter or per inch, used as a means of determining the fineness or coarseness of a halftone screen, negative, positive, or stencil. (The halftone dots, regardless of size, are equidistant from each other on their centers, thus, located in parallel lines.)

halftone negative
a film negative on which the halftone dots form the image corresponding to the original continuous tone art.

halftone positive
a film positive made by exposing film through a halftone negative or positive acting film to obtain the dot structure.

halftone printing
a technique where an image that has been broken up photographically into a structure of tiny dots, each equidistant from others on centers, but varying in size in relation to light and dark areas, can be printed to preserve the gradations of tone.

halftone reproductions
printed matter produced by using halftone photomechanical techniques.

halftone screen
(1) a sheet of glass or film that is used as an intermediate between continuous tone copy and photographic material; also refer to contact screen, crossline screen, and levy screen; (2) printing screen containing a halftone dot pattern.

halftone tint
an area printed with all halftone dots of the same percentage to provide an even tone or color; also refer to screen tint.

halide
a binary compound formed by the direct union of halogen with a more electropositive element or radical.

halo
(1) shadowy image around a screen print caused by movement of the stencil mesh under squeegee pressure; (2) hazy area around a fired glass decoration; (3) enlarged highlight dots (fringe); (4) a bright line tracing the edge of an image, usually an anomaly of excessive digital processing to sharpen or compress an image.

halogen
any of the elements astatine, chlorine, bromine, and fluorine that form a salt by direct union with a metal.

hammock
a cradle for holding ampules and vials during firing.

hand
refer to feel.

hand-cut stencil
a printing screen utilizing a hand cut film for the stencil; also refer to knife cut film.

hand fed
designates manual feeding of a screen printing press or unit.

handle
the touch and sound produced when paper is handled.

handmade paper
paper having rough or deckle edge, where the mold is dipped into a vat and is lifted forming the sheet; refer to deckle edge.

hand processing
(1) manual screen printing; (2) the processing of camera film in trays by hand.

hand table
see hand unit.

hand unit (hand machine, manual unit)
a screen printing device operated entirely by hand, including feeding stock, lowering the screen frame, flooding the screen, printing, raising the screen frame and removing the stock.

hang tag
identifying card attached to any garment.

hansa yellow
a pigment with good flow properties and better lightfastness than diarylide yellow.

hard colors
a range of glass colors especially formulated for extreme hardness and resistance to alkali attack; requires high temperature firing.

hard copy
(1) a printed document on paper; (2) a printout that accurately represents an electronic file.

hard glass enamels
a range of high temperature firing glass enamels especially formulated for extreme hardness and resistance to alkali and acid.

hardener
(1) a chemical treatment used on a water soluble screen printing stencil to make it impervious to water; (2) chemical which promotes curing or hardening of a thermosetting resin used interchangeably with curing agent.

harding on
a heat treatment not in excess of 600ºC (1112ºF) that fires organic colorant on ceramic ware.

hardness
(1) degree of solidity of an imprint with relation to impact resistance, chemical resistance, and resistance to marking or deterioration by mechanical stress; (2) the degree of gloss appearance of a fired glass enamel decoration; (3) resistance of a plastic or rubber material to indentation; refer to Shore hardness.

hard sized
paper that has been sized to allow for a greater degree of water resistance.

hard squeegee
a squeegee with a very stiff blade.

hardness, Shore
refer to Shore hardness.

hatch test
a crosshatch ink adhesion test, refer to ASTIM D3359 (US).

hazard
any dangerous condition that interrupts or interferes with a normal process.

Hazardous Communication Standard (HCS)
a US standard administered by the Occupational Saftety and Heath Administration (OSHA) that requires employers to advise their employees about health hazards in the workplace and to train them in safe handling of hazardous substances; also referred to as the “Right-to-Know Law.”

Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS)
a rating system developed by the US National Paint and Coatings Association (NPCA) to identify the level of three hazards encountered in the workplace health, reactivity, and flammability by numbers from 0 to 4 with 0 being the least, and with letters used to designate personal protective equipment necessary for handling the material.

hazardous material list
identified substances that constitute a clear and imminent danger to life, or pose an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property, when transported in commerce.

hazardous waste discharge
the accidental or intentional spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping of hazardous waste into or on any land or waters.

hazardous waste generation
the act or process of producing a hazardous waste.

haze
(1) residue of ink and/or stencil material remaining in a screen following stencil removal; (2) undesired cloudiness found in transparent areas of film, or base substrate.

HCS
acroynm for Hazardous Communication Standard (US).

HD
one of four common designations for monofilament screen mesh (thread thickness); acroynm for heavy duty.

HDCP
acroynm for high definition color printing.

HDPE
acroynm for high-density polyethylene.

heat activation
the application of heat to convert an adhesive coating from a dry state to one where adhesion can be accomplished.

heat curing
(1) the subjection of a printed textile substrate to steam heat to set the dyes and drive off volatiles; (2) the application of dry heat for predetermined interval to dive off volatiles and speed drying and in some instances to harden the printed film on the substrate.

heat distortion point
(1) the temperature that a material softens enough to distort under a given load; (2) the temperature at which a standard test bar deflects 0-25 mm (0.010 in) under stated load of either 0.45 mPa (66 psi) or 1.82 mPa (264 psi).

heat forming
refer to thermoforming.

heat lamp drying
the drying of a screen print with heat lamps.

heat resistance
the property of a material that inhibits physical or chemical changes caused by exposure to elevated temperature.

heat sealing
uniting two distinct surfaces by fusion, either of the coatings or of the base materials, under controlled conditions of temperature, pressure, and time (dwell).

heat seal machine
specially engineered equipment for applying heat transfers to a variety og substrates; also refer to heat transfer press.

heat sink
any device that absorbs and draws off heat from a hot object.

heat transfer
the flow of heat by conduction, convection, or radiation.

heat transfer application
the transfer of a printed image from a carrier to a receiving substrate by the use of heat and pressure.

heat transfer, nylon
thermal transfer produced utilizing a special screen ink designed especially for adhesion to nylon substrates.

heat transfer, screen flex
thermal transfer made from any type of artwork and in as many colors as desired, using plastisol ink.

heat transfer paper
a special paper that releases the ink printed on it, when heat and pressure are applied over time.

heat tunnel
a heated device that shrinks plastic wrap to tightly conform to the material being wrapped.

heavy bodied ink
an ink of high viscosity or stiff consistency.

heavy metal
toxic metallic elements contained in some pigmented materials such as chromium, cadmium, and lead.

heavyweight
fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard; equal to 1.60 yield. (Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces, 2.0 yield or lighter).

hecto (h)
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the power of two (102) or 100.

hemp
a coarse, durable, strong, soft, woody fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant.

hemp, industrial
a fiber used in clothing that is softer, more breathable, and durable than cotton.

HEPA filter
a cleanroom high efficiency particulate air filter for filtering 0.3 micron particulates and larger.

hermetic
totally sealed against the escape or entry of air; air tight.

Hertz (Hz)
a scale used for measuring the number of cycles per second; a unit of frequency of a periodic process equal to one cycle per second and a metric unit of measure of frequency.

HEW
acroynm for health, education, welfare.

Hexachrome
a color separation process developed by Pantone™ that uses six instead of four process colors.

HF
acroynm for hydrofluoric.

hf
abbreviation for high frequency.

HFC
acroymn for hydrofluorocarbons.

hickey
an imperfection in a print or coating that appears as a small solid area surrounded by a white halo or as an unprinted spot surrounded by printing ink.

hide glue
a glue made from animal hides and used as a blockout and in preparation of resist stencils.

hiding power
(1) opacity; the relative ability of a coating material to hide or obscure a surface to which it has been uniformly applied; (2) the contrast ratio of a gallon of ink or a pound of pigment.

HiFi color
an alternative printing process that extends the capabilities of printing devices. This system uses stochastic screening, 6-color printing, and other techniques to expand the possible color gamut well beyond that of traditional 4-color processes.

high contrast film
a litho film that develops out to either black or to a transparent area with no intermediate gray.

high density polyethylene (HDPE)
a thermoplastic made from hydrogen and carbon atoms combined in the ethylene monomer C4H4.

high definition color printing (HDCP)
a specialized color printing process that uses balanced dot frequency and screen rulings as fine as 625 lpi to reproduce near-photographic quality images.

high fire
the firing of ceramic ware at or above 1200ºC (2200ºF).

high-energy dye
sublimation dye that requires relatively high transfer temperatures usually over 204û C (400û F). As a result they offer excellent permanence and wash-fastness.

high gloss
a type of surface having extreme smoothness and excellent light reflecting qualities.

high impact polystyrene (HIPS)
a thermoplastic made by blending standard polystyrene with impact improving resins.

high key image
an image that is mostly white.

high performance plastic
plastic that is suitable for use above 175ºC (347ºF).

highlight
the lightest or whitest areas of an original copy or reproduction.

highlight density
the density of a halftone negative or positive that ultimately result in the printing of the highlight area.

highlight dot
the largest dot in the film negative or the smallest dot in the film positive.

highlight end
the portion of the halftone positive or the printing screen that prints the highlight areas of a halftone illustration.

highlight exposure
refer to main exposure.

high mesh count
finer mesh materials for screen printing specifically those above 120 threads/cm (300 threads/inch).

high mesh tension
mesh made from a specially formulated polyester that aises optimal tension from 42 N/cm to 120N/cm.

high tack
highly aggressive adhesion.

high temperature adhesive
bonding agent that will enable a pressure sensitive label to adhere when applied to a surface that has an elevated temperature.

high tolerance printing
reproduction that relies on precise dimensions and placement of design elements.

hinge
a strip of cloth or other flexible material used as a connector to attach two moveable parts of a display.

hinge clamp
a special hinge with provisions for clamping that is attached permanently to the printing frame.

HIPS
acroynm for high-impact polystyrene.

histrogram
graphical representation of a pattern of variation that exists in a particular process measure usually depicted by vertical bars drawn to indicate frequency levels of data collected within specific ranges.

HLS
acroynm for hue luminance saturation; a color model based on these three coordinates of color.

HMIS
acroynm for Hazardous Materials Identification System.

hp
abbreviation for horse power.

hoarding
a British and Australian term for a billboard.

holdout
the property of a substrate to resist or retard penetration of ink.

hold-down
a device used to secure a lined garment or jacket to the platen of a textile press.

holding power
the time required for a given weight to peel a given amount of pressure sensitive tape or material from a vertical panel.

holography
a photographic system that uses laser light to expose film to a pattern developed by the interference pattern of the laser and the reflection, when viewed under specific conditions a 3D image is visible.

homogeneous
a substance that is uniform throughout its composition.

homogenizer
a high pressure ink mixer.

homopolymer
a polymer produced from a single type of monomer.

hook (rotary hook)
a circular device that spins around the bobbin case with a pointed arm protruding from its body.

hook and rivet
a hook attached by a rivet.

hook-in hook
a stamping that can be pressed into the back of a display.

hook-in pocket
a pocket construction that permits choice of placement, attached without hole insertion.

hook lock
a device for connecting display parts.

hoop
two concentric rings used to stabilize the fabric in the area of the material to be embroidered.

horizontal camera
a process camera so constructed that the copy board and camera head are in vertical parallel positions, one or both moving horizontally on a bed for focusing and adjustments.

horizontal resolution
the number of vertical lines that a system is capable of producing (counted on a horizontal axis).

horn easel
an easel for pushing out the upper part of a display.

horsepower (hp)
a standard unit of power measurement in the US equal to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute or the force.

hot air motor
a rotary motor actuated by hot air rising through vanes.

hot color
a ceramic or vitreous color dispersed in a thermoplastic composition that is solid at room temperature, but liquid when heated.

hot embossing
embossing with heated rolls or plates.

hot melt ink
(1) ink that is melted to the proper printing consistency by using an electrically heated screen; (2) a form of inkjet printing using thermal material that solidifies very quickly on paper and exhibits excellent dot shape, contrast edge definition, and holdout characteristics.

hot paint
thermoplastic glass enamels used in the glass decorating industry.

hot peel
screen printed heat transfer that is designed to have the release paper removed immediately after application, while the transfer ink is still hot.

hot pressing
the curing of thermoset adhesive by heat and pressure, as in the production of a multilayer printed circuit board.

hot spot
an area where light for exposing film is not properly diffused or is too far from the film during exposure concentrating its intensity in an area causing overexposure.

hot spot diffuser
a light shield attached to a carbon arc lamp to eliminate hot spots in lighting.

hot stamping
a method of printing that uses a hot metal die to impress an image onto the surface of a substrate.

hot wax screen
a printing screen with metal frames and mesh that can be electrically heated for printing thermosetting inks.

hr
abbreviation for hour.

HSB
acroynm for hue staturation brightness; a color model based on these three coordinates of color.

HSV
acroynm for hue saturation value.

ht
abbreviation for height.

hue
(1) one of the the attributes of color; an object defined by its angular position in a cylindrical color space or on a color wheel; (2) the actual name for a color.

hue error
a measure of color deviation from theoretically perfect subtractive process color, expressed as a percentage.

humectant
an additive used to promote moisture retention in an ink; such as glycerin used to retard the drying of a water-based ink.

humidistat
an instrument that indicates or controls the relative humidity of the air.

humidity, absolute
refer to absolute humidity.

humidity, relative
refer to relative humidity.

humidity control
a means of regulating the amount of moisture in air by drawing it through a condenser type unit that removes excess moisture, discharging the dried air for recirculation, or conversely adds water vapor to a given atmosphere.

hunch back easel
an easel positioning and supporting the protruding part or parts of a display.

hybrid circuit
a thick film screen printed circuit made by attaching active components to the passive thick film printed pattern; may be a single-layer, or multilayer, where at least two conductive layers are separated by dielectrics.

hybrid imaging
electronic imaging system that mixes traditional silver halide technologies with digital image technology.

hydraulic press
(1) a laminating press used in mounting where very heavy pressures are generated; (2) a screen printing press that oprtates by use of a pressurized fluid.

hydraulic pressure
the force that pushes the ink into the open image areas of the mesh, controlled by the pressure of the squeegee blade and the speed that it moves across the printing screen.

hydrocarbon
a family of chemical compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms in three general classes according to molecule structure: straight chain or aliphatic; ring or aromatic; and cyclic.

hydrofluoric acid
an aqueous solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) used in etching and frosting glass.

hydrogen-ion concentration
the massing of hydrogen ions (more properly hydronium ions HO+) existing in an aqueous solution that is a measure of the active acidity or basicity. (The hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is usually expressed in terms of pH that is defined as the negative logarithm (to base 10) of the hydrogen-ion concentration).

hydrogen peroxide
(1) a chemical used as a hardener/developer in diluted form for many indirect photostencils; (2) a chemical used to remove scorching from some fabrics.

hydrometer
an instrument used for measuring the specific gravity of liquids.

hydrophilic
having a strong attraction for water; the ability to unite or dissolve in water.

hydrophobic
having no affinity for water.

hydroquinone
a white crystalline compound (C6H4(OH)2 chemical used in some developer formulas.

hydroxyl
chemical group consisting of one hydrogen atom plus one oxygen atom.

hyg
abbreviation for hygroscopic.

hygro-expansivity
the change in the dimensions of a sheet of paper stock due to a change in ambient relative humidity.

hygrometer (hydroscope)
an instrument for measuring changes in atmospheric humidity.

hygroscope
an instrument used to measure the moisture content of a pile of paper relative to the humidity in the pressroom.

hygroscopic
the quality to absorb or release atmospheric moisture.

hypo
an abbreviation for sodium thiosulphate or sodium hyposulfite, a chemical used to fix the image on photographic film after it has been developed.

hysteresis
(1) the difference in the moisture content of a paper as indicated by its ascending and descending curves for relative humidity; (2) the difference in output when a pressure valve is first approached with increasing pressure, and then with decreasing pressure.

Hz
abbreviation for Hertz.

IATM
acroymn for International Association for Testing Materials.
IC
acroynm for integrated circuit.

ICC
acroynm for International Color Consortium

ice
a fusible, fine, granular glass that is used as a decorating medium and is dusted on an adhesive to keep it inplace during firing.

ice wash
a chemical or mechanical treatment where dye is removed from a garment to create a cracked look.

ICR
acroynm for intelligent character recognition.

ID
abbreviation for inside dimension; abbreviation for identification.

identity tone map
one to one mapping of the input values to identical output values without changes in contrast or brightness.

idium tin oxide (ITO)
a thin conductive material that is vacuum deposited on the surface of a film substrate used as the base material for resistive touch screens and electroluminescent (EL) lamps.

idler roller
the support rollers for a web material.

IEC
acroynm for International Electrotechnical Commission.

IEEE
acroynm for Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

ignite
to set fire to; to cause to burn.

ignitable mixture
a vapor-air mixture that is capable of the initiation and propagation of flame away from the source of ignition. (Propagation of flame is the spread of the flame from layer to layer independent of the source of ignition).

ignition temperature
the temperature at which a flammable liquid vapor ignites regardless of external heat source; lowest temperature at which a substance will catch fire and continue to burn, the lower the temperature the more of a fire hazard.

IGT
acroynm for incident glass temperature.

IGT test
a test for the pick resistance of paper.

illuminant
mathematical description of the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source.

illuminant A (CIE)
incandescent illumination yellow orange in color with correlated color temperature of 2856ºK defined in the wavelength of 380 to 770 nm.

illuminant C (CIE)
tunsten illumination that simulates average daylight, bluish in color with a correlated color temperature of 6774ºK.

illuminant D (CIE)
daylight illumination based on actual spectral measurements of daylight defined from 300 to 830 nm with a correlated color temperature of 6504ºK.

illustration board
a pasted board with hard sizing, good erasing quality, and warp resistance with a typical thickness of 0.890 mm (0.035 in).

image
an original design of any kind; the reproduction of an original design or pattern.

image area
the area that is to be reproduced or printed.

image assembly
refer to film image assembly.

image carrier
an imaged screen.

image orientation
the spatial relationship of the different parts of an image.

image printing
the graphic reproduction of such items as paintings, drawings, and photographs.

imagesetter
a drum or flatbed laser output device used to image bitmap data onto separation film or paper.

imaging device
equipment such as laser scanner, process camera, or contact printing frame that projects light images of originals onto photosensitive materials under controlled conditions.

IMAPS
acroynm for International Microelectronic and Packaging Society, formally known as International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics (ISHM).

IMD
abbreviation for in-mold decoration.

immersion length
that portion of the length of an instrument that measures the immersed temperature of a liquid.

immiscible
incapable of being mixed such as oil and water.

imitation gold ink
a simulated gold ink that uses aluminum powder to produce the metallic luster and a transparent yellow colorant to produce the color.

impact resistance
the ability of a material or coating to resist sudden shocks or impacts without breakage.

impact test
a destructive test method to determine the resistance of an object to fracture or colapse by the sudden application of a load.

impactless imaging
a printing process where the substrate is not struck to creat a print.

impedance
(1) the rate at which a substance absorbs and transmits sound; (2) resistance to alternating current.

imperfect
a level of quality used to describe an irregular garment.

imposition
the arrangement of printed matter to form a sequence of pages.

impregnation
the penetration of fluid ink into a porous, or absorbent substrate.

impression
(1) the result of printing; a printed copy; (2) the pressure of copy on printing plate as it comes into contact with the substrate.

impression pass
refer to print stroke.

impression time
the time required for the squeegee to produce a complete imprint on the substrate.

imprint
(1) the result of transferring an image by pressure or other means to a substrate; (2) a technique where an image is applied over or ontop of a previously imaged area.

impurity
a quality or state of being impure; lack of consistency or homogeneity.

in
abbreviation for inch.

in2
abbreviation for square inch.

in3 abbreviation for cubic inch.

incandescent
an energy source that emits light from a heated wire.

inch (in)
a measurement unit of length equal to 1/12 of a foot or 2.54 centimeters; (2) to move the printing action of a press or other equipment slowly or in small increments for adjustment.

inch, cubic
refer to cubic inch.

inch, square
refer to square inch.

incident glass temperature (IGT)
temperature at which isolated beads of glass powder first show evidence of glass.

incinerator
an enclosed device using controlled flame combustion with the primary purpose of thermally breaking down hazardous waste.

incline press
a screen printing press where the screen maintains a position parallel to the printing bed, but recedes during the feed/take off cycle in a diagonal-lifting motion.

incompatible substance
a liquid or material, when mixed, can cause a dangerous reaction.

incomplete combustion
partial burning of the air/fuel mixture due to inadequate oxygen supply or too low an acquired temperature to complete chemical reaction, resulting in the formation of CO (carbon monoxide).

indanthrene blue
an organic pigment with good fad resistance, fair transparency, and poor resistance to acid.

indelible ink
permenent; a marking ink that is difficult or impossible to remove.

indentation hardness
refer to Shore hardness.

independent laboratory
an analyitical or test facility operated independently and capable of performing evaluation tests.

index
to move a substrate into position for printing.

index bristol
a group of lightweight cardboards used principally for business and commercial uses; made of homogenous stock.

index table
a printing base that is rotatable and can be stopped at predetermined positions of equal increments.

indexed color
a color system that defines a palate of color to be used in a specific image and makes images small and manageable.

indicator travel
the dimension of the path described by the indicating needle or pointer, in moving across a scale.

indicia
replaces a stamp; postal permit information (US) permitted on objects to be mailed in lieu of a stamp.

indirect photostencil printing screen
a printing screen made by exposing a photosensitive polymer or gelatin to actinic light, after development the film is adhered, via the gelatine (polymer) side, to the mesh, then when dry, the plastic support sheet is removed.

indirect stencil
a photosensitive stencil made from a light sensitive gelatin emulsion coated onto a polyester carrier or backing sheet that is exposed to a film positive, chemically processed into a stencil, adhered to the stretched screen mesh, and the support or backing sheet is removed.

industrial screen printing
applies generally to the screen printing of legends, markings, patterns, designs, etc., to explain or identify locations of components, as in the marking of machine parts, electronic cables, connectors, chassis, etc.; includes electronic circuitry and chemical milling.

industrial wipe
lint-free pliable towel that is made for industrial cleaning and wiping uses, with capacity to absorb ink, oil, and water.

inert
extended pigments that are chemically unable to react, often added to lower the cost of an ink formulation.

inert atmosphere
achieved when purging with and maintaining an inert gas such as nitrogen above the surface of a UV coating, thereby eliminating the effect of oxygen inhibition on the cure speed.

infeed
(1) front area of a machine where the substrate first enters the printing process; (2) a mechanism for web tension that controls the forward travel of the web into a web screen printing press.

infinitely variable stroke
system where speed of squeegee strokes can be varied from minimum to maximum without incremental regulation.

inflammable
refer to flammable.

infrared
specific wavelengths on the electromagnetic spectrum from 760 nanometers to 1000 nanometers that heat an object they strike.

infrared dryer
a drying system for screen printed sheets or three-dimensional items utilizing infrared emission as a heating source.

infrared emission
a measure of the ability of a surface to emit, absorb, or reflect infrared rays.

infrared spectroscopy
the spectral analysis of compounds using radiation in the infrared region.

ingestion
to swallow.

inglaze decoration
a ceramic decoration applied on the surface of an unfired glaze and matured with the glaze during firing.

inhalation
breathing material in through the nose or mouth.

inhibitor
a substance used to retard an undesirable reaction.

initial tack
stage of an adhesive prior to setting.

injection molded circuit
polymer thick film circuit printed directly onto three-dimensional injection molded plastic.

injection blow molding
a blow molding process where the parison to be blown is formed by injection molding.

injection molding
a method for forming thermoplastics into a desired shape, by first softening the material by heat, followed by injection into a cool mold cavity.

ink
a pigmented, liquid or paste used for printing.

ink adhesion
the bond between ink and substrate.

ink adhesion test
any of several controlled tests to determine long/short-term adhesion properties of an ink to a substrate.

ink deposit
the actual ink placed on the substrate by screen printing technique, used in relation to thickness of the ink film printed.

ink deposit thickness
the height of the ink film layer that has been layed down by a screen during the printing process.

ink, dull
an ink that dries to a matte or very slightly reflecting finish.

ink flow
refer to flow, flow out.

ink holdout
the extent to which a printed surface resists penetration by the vehicle and/or pigment of a given ink formulation.

ink halftone
a high tinctorial strength, finely dispersed, translucent, thixotropic specially formulated ink screen printing ink specifically designed for printing halftone dots.

inking
one of the primary functions of the squeegee during screen printing, responsible for filling the open mesh apertures with ink; also refer to wiping.

inkjet, phase change
type of inkjet technology that uses solid wax inserts instead of traditional inks. The wax is heated to liquidity and deposited onto the substrate through the printhead, where it hardens on contact.

inkjet, piezo

type of inkjet technology that use piezo crystals that vibrate when tiny electric charges are applied. This action forces ink out of the nozzles in the head.

inkjet printer

a type of printer that sprays tiny streams of quick-drying ink onto paper or other media..

inkjet printing
a non-impact printing process where an intermittent or continuous stream of electrostatically charged microscopic ink droplets are projected onto a substrate at high velocity from a pressurized system.

inkjet, thermal

type of inkjet technology that uses heat to vaporize ink to create a bubble. As the bubble expands, some of the ink is pushed out of a nozzle onto the media. When the bubble “pops” (collapses), a vacuum is created pulling more ink into the print head from the cartridge.

ink limiting
a control within a program that limits the percentage of ink applied to an area of print.

ink mottle
a non-uniform appearance of the ink film in printed areas with respect to density and color or both.

inkometer
an instrument used for measuring the degree of ink tack in terms of the torque developed by a system of rotating wet ink rollers.

ink receptivity
the property of a substrate that causes it to accept and/or absorb ink.

ink stability
the ability of an ink to print for a prolonged period without drying in the mesh.

ink tack
the sticky or adhesive property of ink.

ink toner
ink composition designed to change the characteristics of a base color by intermixing.

ink transfer
the amount of ink film transferred from the printing screen to a receiving surface, as the result of a printing impression.

ink transparency
the degree to which light passes through an ink film.

inkwell
the non-image area of a screen to the right and left of the image area in the direction of the squeegee stroke that holds extra ink during printing.

inline
a production line of machinery for transporting a product through a series of automated machines or printing presses.

inline cut
an overlay cut that allows the overlay and trap color to overlap slightly.

in-mold decoration (IMD
a method whereby labels are placed in the front and/or back of a mold, and a plastic article is molded against them, permenantly attaching the label to the article.

inorganic
descriptive of any substance that is not derived from hydrocarbons, generally structured through ionic bonding; coatings made from mineral sources.

inorganic color
ink prepared from mineral or metallic substances.

inorganic pigment
mixed metal oxides procured from a mineral source or high temperature calcination that produces a stable non-soluable crystal used as a colorant.

in-plant printer
department of an agency, business, or organization that prints only for the parent company.

input device
a digitizer, scanner, line art, clip art, keyboard, video camera or any other device that is used to generate and send a design or other instruction into a computer for eventual production on an output device.

in register
refer to register.

International Color Consortium (ICC)
established in 1993 to create, promote, and encourage the standardization and evaluation of an open, vendor neutral cross platform color management system, located in Virginia USA.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
an international organization concerned with standardization of electrical and electronic equipment.

International Metric System (SI)
the internationally accepted system based on seven basic units of measure: meter for length, kilogram for mass, second for time, ampere for electrical current, degree Kelvin for thermodynamic temperature, candela for light intensity, and mole for amount of substance.

International Microelectronic and Packaging Society (IMAPS)
supports ceramic, thick and thin film, semiconductor packaging, discrete semiconductor devices, and monolithic circuit producers; formally known as ISHM.

inside cut
an overlay cut that allows a slight gap between the overlay and the trap color.

insol
abbreviation for insoluble.

insoluble
incapable of being dissolved particularly by a liquid.

inspection
the activity of measuring, examining, testing, or gauging one or more characteristics and comparing them to specified requirements to determine conformance.

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. (IEEE
a leading authority in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics, among others.

instron
an instrument utilized to determine the tensile and compressive properties of materials.

instruction tab
discardable instructions printed on the face side of a label but separated from the label proper by a face slit.

instrument standard
secondary standard that is used with a particular instrument only, for use in maintaining the calibration of the instrument.

insulation resistance
the electrical resistance beween two test points.

insulator
any material that is a poor or non-conductor of electrical energy; also refer to resistance, insulator.

intaglio
any form of printing where the image areas are engraved or etched below the non-image areas on the printing plate.

integral proof
color proof of separation negatives exposed in register on one piece of proofing paper.

integrated circuit (IC
a solid state unit that contains basic electronic circuits, printed, where parts or components are produced and contained in single small blocks of the unit; the components designed to perform different functions as resistors, capacitors, etc.

integrator
see light integrator.

intelligent character recognition (ICR
a sophisticated form of optical charater recognition (OCR) where the computer determines the probable meaning of a character by analyzing its shape, able to interpret a wide range of different type faces and point sizes.

intensification
the addition of density to film negatives, usually by chemical treatment.

intensity
(1) the strength of a color; chroma; (2) the amount of light output by a lamp.

interchangability error
a measurement error that can occur if two or more probes are used for the same measurement, caused by a slight variation in characteristics of different probes.

intercoat adhesion
the adhesion of one ink to another; the ability of a coating or ink to adhere to a previously printed surface.

intercrimp
an extra crimp occurring between points of intersection in woven wire cloth.

interface
the contact area between two surfaces.

interface pressure
the result of the applied force of the squeegee meeting the tension force of stretched screen mesh.

interference pattern
an undesirable pattern that occurs when one regular set of parallel lines or dots crosses another set at various angles of intersection; also refer to moiré.

interleaving
process whereby prints are separated one from another by a sheet of non-adhering material, used to prevent blocking.

interlock
(1) a device for connecting heavy stock display elements; (2) a device that prevents the operation of a piece of machinery while repairs are being made.

intermediate
any chemical substance that is either consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction used for the manufacture of other chemical substances or mixtures, or is intentionally present for the purpose of altering the rate of such chemical reaction.

internal strength
the force required to divide or separate a material internally under prescribed conditions.

internal tearing resistance
the force in grams required to tear a single sheet of paper after the tear has been started, not to be confused with initial tear or edge tear, normally tested on an Elmendorf tester.

International Color Consortium (ICC
established in 1993 to create, promote, and encourage the standardization and evaluation of an open, vendor neutral cross platform color management system, located in Virginia USA.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC
an international organization concerned with standardization of electrical and electronic equipment.

International Metric System (SI
the internationally accepted system based on seven basic units of measure: meter for length, kilogram for mass,second for time, ampere for electrical current, degree kelvin for thermodynamic temperature, candela for ligt intensity, and mole for amount of substance.

International Microelectronic and Packaging Society (IMAPS
supports ceramic, thick and thin film, semiconductor packaging, discrete semiconductor devices, and monolithic circuit producers; formally known as ISHM.

International paper sizes
the International Standards Organization system of paper sizes based on a series of three sizes A, B, and C; series A is used for general printing and stationary, series B for posters, and series C for envelopes.

interpolation
(1) matrix for comparison of central pixels to surrounding pixels, used to increase the apparent resolution of a digital image; (2) a mathematical technique used in some scanning and graphic programs to increase resolution also called bi-cubic or sequential interpolation.

Int’l
abbreviation for international.

intrinsically safe
an instrument that will not produce a spark or thermal effects under normal or abnormal conditions.

intumescent
the ability of an ink or coating to enlarge or swell in response to heat.

invariant color match
a color match that does not vary with a change of illuminant or observer.

inverse light law
a formula for determining the amount that light diminishes at varying distances in relation to a given area. The law states that light diminishes in inverse ratio to the square of the distance from the source.

iodine number
a number that indicates the relative drying potential of vegetable oils.

ion projection printing
similar to electrostatic imaging, but with ionized dot pattern projected to an image surface, then brought into contact with the paper and fused.

ionized air
air where the ions have been changed in polarity to reduce the effect of static electricity charges.

IPC
acronym for the Association Connecting Electronics Industry; prior to 1999 known as Institute of Interconnecting and Packaging Circuits, still use IPC as acroynm.

iph
abbreviation for impressions per hour.

IPS
acroynm for impact resistant polystyrene.

iridescent
displaying properties of a rainbow/prismatic colors.

iris proof
a proof produced by a color matching system made by Scitex Company.

iron blue (Prussian blue, milori, Berlin and Chinese blue
a class of light fast dark blue pigments, essentially ferric ferrocyanide.

iron oxide
a series of compounds of oxygen and iron occurring naturally or manufactured, used as a pigment in screen printing ink.

irradiation
exposure to ultraviolet light or other high energy ray.

irradiator
the lamp housing and reflector assembly in a UV curing system.

irregular
any article containing slight imperfections.

irregular
flawed garment. (Some irregulars are of acceptable quality, even though not up to the manufacturer’s standards).

irregular print
any print that does not conform exactly to customer or company specifications, or which exhibits other defects.

irreversible
describes a chemical reaction, such as polymerization that is not reversible by normal means.

irreversible transformation
a change in any image during scanning and postscan image editing where information about the image is irretrievably lost.

irritant
a chemical substance or mixture (not a corrosive) where on immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with normal living tissues induces a local inflammatory response in the skin, eyes or mucous membranes.

ISBN
acroynm for International Standard Book Number, a reference number given to every published book.

ISHIHARA test
a vision test for determining color blindness.

ISHM
acronym for International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics, changed name in 1998 to International Microelectronic and Packaging Society now uses acryonm IMAPS.

island rack
a two-or four-sided display rack that is stationary and placed in the center of a wide aisle, permitting customers to scan the merchandise as they walk around the fixture.

ISO
an acronym for the International Organization for Standardization.

ISO 9000
a series of international quality management and quality assurance standards that are not specific to any industry, product, or service, administered by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

ISO 14000
international environmental management system standard administered by International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

isobutyl acetate
solvent used in lacquer thinner compounds.

isophorone
a high boiling point solvent in the cyclic ketone family or group of solvents.

isopropyl alcohol
a secondary alcohol made from natural gases used in shellacs and lacquers, and for other uses not involving ingestion; often used as a plastic substrate cleaner.

isothermal
describes a process or area held at a constant temperature.

ISSN
similar to ISBN, but issued for journals only.

IT8
a color calibration target used in many systems to create profiles.

italic
a letter that has been slanted between 8º and 20º from the perpendicular to the character baseline.

ITO
acroynm for idium tin oxide.

ivory
a cream-white color.

Izod impact test
a destructive test designed to determine the resistance of a plastic to the impact of a suddenly applied force; a measure of brittleness of a material.

Izod impact strength
a measure of the toughness of a material taken by the Izod impact test.

jack knife easel
an easel that can be folded, but retains its intended support strength when in use.
jaggies
(1) slight noticeable unwanted angles that are apparent on a cut line or curve that would otherwise be smooth; (2) an effect caused by images or lines being rendered at too low a resolution that makes edges rough or stair-stepped.

JAN
acroynm for Joint Army Navy specification (US).

japan
a varnish yielding a hard, glossy film when baked at high temperature.

jar mill
a small ball mill used for extremely small batch grinding; refer to ball mill.

jasper ware
a vitreous, opaque, colored, unglazed ceramic ware containing substantial amount of barite.

jelling
the thickening of an ink or other liquid that cannot be reversed by stirring; refer to gel.

jet
(1) the blackness or intensity of the masstone of black or near-black ink or colored surface; (2) a pressurized stream of air used as a drying mechanism.

jet dryer
a mechanical unit consisting of a conveyor belt for transporting wet prints through a chamber where hot air is projected through holes or slits onto the surface of the print to hasten evaporation of the volatile solvents from the wet ink film.

jet drying
the drying of screen printed material by means of a jet dryer.

jet spray etcher
a device for etching printed circuit boards by means of the application of etchants through a nozzle, rather than by immersion.

jig
any special form or fixture constructed to support and hold in place a part during printing or converting.

jigger
a machine similar to a potters wheel used for shaping flatware by means of a profiled tool at a fixed distance from the rotating surface of a plaster mold.

JIT.
acroynm for Just-In-Time.

job shop
a commercial printing company.

jog
(1) close interval starting and stopping of a press to attain position for set-up, cleaning, trouble shooting, etc.; (2) to align sheets of paper into a compact pile to a common edge either manually or by vibration.

jogger
mechanical device to hold sheets for jogging with the holding platform slanted toward one corner and with the lower edges fitted with metal or wood stops against which two edges of the sheet can be positioned by vibration of the holding platform.

jolly
a partly or fully automatic device similar to potters wheel that utilizes molds for making cups.

joint
the junction of two structural members of a screen printing frame, such as butt, lap, and dovetail attachment styles.

Jordan machine
a conical rotor and housing that mechanically bruises the pulp causing fibrillation and hydration while serving to produce a more uniform mixture of water, fibers, and other additives improving sheet formation in papermaking; better known by its nickname beater.

joule
a unit of energy or work that is equivalent to one watt per second or 0.737 foot-pounds; a calorie is equal to 4.184 joules.

JPEG
an acronym for Joint Photographic Electronic Group, a common standard for compressing image data.

junior outdoor poster
a smaller outdoor poster approximately 60″ x 132″, usually consisting of three or fewer sheets.

justify
to space out lines of type uniformly to a desired length, refers to aligning both the right and left hand margins.

Just-In-Time
a manufacturing method based on statistical process control, setup procedures, yield quality, and preventive maintenance.

just-noticeable-difference
in the CIELAB color model, a difference in hue, chroma, or intensity, or some combination of all three, that is apparent to a trained observer under ideal lighting conditions.

jute board
a long fibered, extremely durable paper or board manufactured from a combunation of jute plant and kraft pulp.

K
(1) prefix in metric system for Kelvin; (2) symbol for the black printer in process color reproduction.
k
prefix in metric system for kilo.

kaolin
a fine white clay used as a filler or coating pigment in papermaking; also referred to china clay.

kangaroo easel
an easel with a built-in pouch.

kauri
a gum like copal resin used in making oleoresinous enamel and varnish.

kauri butanol value (KB value)
a measure of the solvent power of hydrocarbon solvents and oils using kauri gum butanol reagent; (values range from 20, petroleum naphtha, a poor solvent to 105, toluene, an excellent solvent).

KB
symbol for kilobyte.

Kbps
abbreviation for kilobytes per second.

kcal
abbreviation for kilocalorie.

Kelvin
an absolute scale of temperature (Kelvin Scale) where the degree intervals are equal to those of the Celsius scale and where 0º or absolute zero equals —273.16º C; symbol is K. (Color temperature of light is measured in Kelvin).

kenaf
an Indian plant with long fibers in its bark suitable for papermaking.

kernel size
the number of pixels sampled as a unit during image manipulation and shaping.

kerning
manipulating type character width and white space to achieve tighter fit or aesthetically pleasing results; also referred to as character compensation.

ketone
a class of strong volatile organic solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK).

key
(1) master layout or flat that is used as a positioning guide for color artwork and for image assembly of other film flats; (2) any special quality of the surface or of a previous coat of ink, which assists adhesion of a subsequent coat. (A rough or abraded surface provides a mechanical key for adhesion of an applied ink or film).

key height
the measured distance from the base of a keypad to the top surface of the key.

keyline
an outline drawing or finished art, which shows maximum detail, to indicate the exact shape, position, and size for such elements as halftones and type.

key plate
in color printing, the plate used as a guide for the register of other colors, and normally contains the most detail.

key travel
the distance a switch moves to close an electrical contact.

kg
metric symbol for kilogram.

kicker
short line above the main line of a head, printed in smaller or accent type.

kier
a large vat used in bleaching and dyeing of fabric.

kill
to delete unwanted copy.

kiln
a furnace or enclosed heat chamber controllable by pyrometer or pyrometric cones for the firing of ceramic ware in static position.

kilo
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the power of three (103) or 1,000; symbol is k.

kilobyte
an electronic unit of measure equal yo 1024 bytes; symbol KB.

kilocalorie
a unit of measure of heat equal to 1000 calories or the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree centigrade; abbreviation kcal.

kilogram
the standard for unit of mass and weight in the metric system; equivalent to 1000 grams (2.2046 pounds); symbol kg.

kilogram-meter
a unit of energy or work equivalent to the amount of energy needed to raise one kilogram one meter and is equal to 7.2334 foot-pounds.

kilovolt
(1) a unit of electromotive force equal to 1000 volts; (2) a standard measure for the relationship between the intensity of an electromagnetic field and the distance between the electrodes generating the field used in electrostatic flocking.

kilovolts per centimeter
a standard measure for the relationship between the intensity of an electromagnetic field and the distance between the electrodes generating the field used in electrostatic flocking.

kilowatt
a metric unit of power equal to one thousand watts or 1.34 horsepower.

kilowatt hour
a metric unit of work or heat equivalent to the total energy developed by a power of one kilowatt working one hour; symbol kWh.

km
metric symbol for kilometer.

km/h
metric symbol for kilometers per hour.

kink
any unintended crease.

kiosk
a small point of purchase display, fixture, structure, cart placed in the center of an aisle or merchandise area.

kiss cutting
the die cutting of a face material of a laminated substrate without cutting the support material.

knife bevel
angle of the vertical cutting edge of a blade.

knife coating
a coating process for paper where a doctor blade, knife, or straight edge is used to spread and control the amount and thickness of a coating.

knife cut film
a lacquer or similar film temporarily affixed to a clear support sheet, where designs or images are cut either mechanically or manually with a sharp knife.

knife cut positive
a design or image cut into masking film that is usable in the same way as a film positive made by camera for making a screen printing photostencil.

knit shrinkage gauge
instrument used for measuring the ability of preshrunk to return to original size under tension.

knitting
a series of interconnecting loops of yarn formed by independent needles of a circularly rotating machine. (The fineness of the knit affects shrinkage, strength, and luster of the finished garment).

knockout
a technique of preparing a color separation to produce a transparent area on a film that appears as white on a black or dark colored background.

knockout pin
refer to ejector pin.

knot
an imperfection or lump in glass.

knuckles
part of a woven screen mesh where the threads intersect and overlap.

knurl
a protuberance such as a raised edge of a polyester backing sheet on capillary/indirect films, which is a by-product of polyester extrusion.

kraft board
a paper board made of sulfate pulp that has particularly good strength and bending qualities.

kraft gummed tape
a brown paper tape with a water-soluble adhesive.

kraft pulp
a brown unbleached sulphate pulp made largely of pine by used in coarser papers such as brown wrapping paper, container board, and bag papers.

kv/cm
symbol for kilovolts per centimeter.

krinkle wash
a dyeing process that gives garments a frosted look by using a distressing method.

kV/kv
symbol for kilovolt.

kW
symbol for kilowatt.

kWh
symbol for kilowatts per hour.

L
abbreviation in metric system for liter.
l
abreviation for metric unit of capacity.

label
an applied printed identification denoting contents, ownership, directions, destination, rating, or use.

label adhesion test
a method to determining the degree that a standard or designated label adhesive adheres to a surface under specific conditions.

label, face cut
refer to face cut label.

label, laid on (label, die cut)
die cut pressure sensitive labels on a release liner or backing where the matrix has been removed.

label, pressure sensitive (label, self-adhesive)
any label manufactured from a pressure sensitive substrate.

label, punched out
labels that have been die cut through both the face and backing sheet or liner.

label, roll
labels produced on continuous strips and packaged in continuous roll form.

label, sheet
labels that have been produced in sheet form.

labels, split top (butt label; knife-cut label)
labels so located on the sheet that one edge abutts the comparable edge of another so that one edge of the die separates the labels in cutting.

label stock, pressure sensitive (self-adhesive label stock)
pressure sensitive substrate material suitable for the production of labels.

label, tamper proof
pressure sensitive label material where removal after application is not possible without destroying the label.

label tarnish proof
pressure sensitive labels that are free of substances that might discolor or blemish copper or silver.

label transparent
pressure sensitive labels whose face material, adhesive and protective coatings transmit light so that objects may be seen through them.

lacquer
any of various clear or colored synthetic coatings made by dissolving nitrocellulose or other cellulose derivatives together with plasticizers and pigments in a mixture of volitale solvents used to impart a high gloss to a surface.

lacquer diluent
a fast dry strong solvency diluent used in lacquers and synthetic coating.

lacquered paper
paper that has been coated with a lacquer or plastic.

lacquer stencil
a photo-sensitive lacquer-like material laminated to a temporary support sheet.

lacquer thinner
blended solvent made up of a mixture of tolulen, alcohol, ester, glycol ether and other solvents.

lag
the momentary time of contact of the printing screen to the substrate immediately after the printing stroke.

laid finish
paper with a pattern of parallel lines at equal distances giving a ribbed effect.

lake
a pigment made up of organic coloring matter with an inorganic base or carrier.

laminant
adhesive used for combining and bonding films, foils, plastics, papers or other material in sheet or web form.

laminate
(1) the act of adhere a film to a surface by hand or mechanical means to form a single multi-layer sheet; (2) a web or sheet material formed by bonding materials together.

laminating film
usually a clear or transparent sheeting manufactured for use as a protective top strata of a cold seal or thermal lamination to processed material.

laminating press
a device for producing a multi-layered sheet or for applying a protective sheet of clear plastic to a printed sheet or liner with pressure and heat or just pressure.

lamination
a sheet of material composed of two or more layers of material adhered together to form the sheet such as a liner and face material together with an adhesive to form a sheet of pressure sensitive label stock.

laminar flow
air flow where essentially the entire body of air within a confined area moves with uniform velocity and direction as the ambient atmosphere being sampled.

laminator
refer to laminating press.

lamp
a light source.

lampblack
a gray or black material made from soot obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous material used as a pigment to achieve a dull black ink with softer, grayer top tones and bluer undertones.

landscape
a page that has a greater width than height; page layout in horizonal format.

lenox cut
a continuous and precise sheeting method in which revolving steel disc slitters cut sides and rotating blades cut ends, for ream to ream accuracy of 0.397mm or 1/64 inch.

lap easel
an easel providing a rest for slanted lower parts of displays.

lap marks
the slight ridge produced by overlapping of colors, found especially in glass decorating where screen printed films are thicker than in usual commercial screen printing.

lap register
refer to lapping colors.

lapping colors
over-printing of the edges or other portions of the area of a printed color by a succeeding color.

laps
non-printed or blank space on edges of printed billboard poster paper used for joining and matching multiple sheets.

large-format
a printer, media, or print 24″ or greater in width.

laser
a high energy single wavelength pin-point light.

laser scanner
a device that uses color filters and beams of light to produce tone and color corrected separations for process printing.

latent curing
the use of a curing agent that is stable at room temperatures, but promotes a rapid cure at higher temperatures.

latent charge
electrostatic printing, the charge remaining in the area not exposed to light and dissapated.

latent image
invisible image on exposed film that has not been developed.

lateral reversal
left to right or mirror image reversal.

layout
(1) a guide showing the arrangement and location of all type, illustrations, line art drawings, or sketches of a proposed printed piece; (2) the floor plan view of a printing plant or manufacturing area.

lays
the fixed guides used to register a substrate on the printing bed.

laysides
the two sides of a sheet set against register guides (lays) for registration during screen printing.

lazy flame
a type of flame resulting from a gas rich mixutre.

lb
abbreviation for pound.

LC
abbreviation for lethal concentration.

lc
abbreviation for lowercase.

LCD
acroynm for liquid crystal display.

LD
acroynm for laser diode; abbreviation for lethal dose.

L/D ratio
relationship between an extrusion screw length and its diameter.

LDPE
acroynm for low density polyethylene.

LE
acroynm for low elogation.

leachate
liquid, including any suspended components in a liquid, that has percolated through or drained from hazardous waste.

lead dryers
chemical combinations of lead with various organic acids that are used to accelerate the drying of screen printed ink film.

lead-free ink
inks and coatings formulated for special purposes that contain less than 0.06% lead by weight measurement (US).

lead glass
glass containing a substantial portion of lead oxide (PbO).

leading edge squeegee
the corner of the squeegee blade that contacts the mesh during the printing stroke.

leafing
a phenomenon where metallic pigments form a layer parallel to the surface of the substrate, yielding a high metallic luster.

lean
a color and oil mixture, that does not flow easily and smoothly on application.

lean mixture
a type of flame resulting from an air/gas mixture where too much air is present.

least-square lines
in statistical computations, the straight line for which the sum of the squares of the residuals (deviations) is minimized.

leather hard
clay that is dry enough to hold its shape, but damp enough to work with tools.

LED
acroynm for light emitting diode.

ledger paper
a durable grade of business papers generally used for record keeping.

legend
characters, nomenclature, text, type and/or symbols to be printed.

legging
the stringing out of pressure sensitive adhesive when a material is drawn away from a substrate, its release liner, or its matrix.

lehr
a long tunnel shaped conveyorized oven for annealing and firing ceramic ink.

LEL
acroynm for lower exsposure limit.

length
the flow characteristics of a screen ink, often referred to as “long” or “short,” but more often a screen ink will be short.

leno weave
a locking-type weave of silk bolting cloth that has twisted strands running in one direction with each twist encasing a single strand running in the crosswise direction; prevents the shifting of fibers in an open weave.

lens
one or more pieces of optical glass designed to collect and focus rays of light to form a sharp image on light-sensitive film, paper, or projection screen.

lens aperture
the adjustable opening in the iris diaphragm of a camera that determines the amount of light that will pass through the lens during exposure.

lens axis
an imaginary line drawn through the center of a lens from the front of the lens through the rear element.

lens board
support that holds the lens in alignment with optical axis of a camera and allows it to move along that axis in connection with the reproduction percentage adjustment.

lens speed
the largest lens opening (smallest f-number) possible for a specific lens. (A fast lens transmits more light by way of a larger opening than a slow lens).

lenticular
a grooved plastic sheet with certain light properties that give a different visual angle at different light angles, creating a 3-dimensional effect when printed.

letter A easel
a version of the figure four easel that has the cross link located in a very low position.

letter guide
an adjustable mechanical lettering tool operated manually to produce lettering from guides, or templates.

letterpress printing
a process where ink is applied to paper or other substrate by means of relief (raised above the non-image areas) printing plate or type.

letterscreen
in printed circuit board manufacturing, a printing screen produced specifically for printing nomenclature.

letterset
refer to dry offset.

levelling
(1) process used to manufacture metal frames that are level across the frame dimension; (2) the smoothing out of a color application after it has been applied.

levy screen (crossline or contact screen
a glass or plastic screen with very fine cross hatching rulings used for translating continuous tones into halftones.

Lexan
registered trademark of General Electric (GE) for polycarbonate film.

LIFO
acroynm for last in, first out.

lift
a group of sheets cut or trimmed together.

lifting
the softening and penetration of a paint or ink layer by another ink film, the solvents of which cause wrinkling or raising of the first layer.

lift transfer
a technique for making positives where an image printed on clay-coated paper is separated from the paper and transferred to a transparent or translucent plastic sheet.

ligature
letters that are joined together as a single unit of type such as fi, fl.

light
electromagnetic energy in the 380 to 750 wavelength that affects vision.

light bug
a round light sensing device with a cord attached for connecting to a radiometer for measuring UV light intensity.

light emitting diode (LED)
a semiconductor device that emits incoherent light.

light emitting diode display
type of electronic changeable copy sign that uses hundreds of light emitting diodes in single and tri-color matrixes.

light integrator
an instrument used when exposing photo sensitive materials that measures the intensity and duration of a light source

light intensity
brightness of a light source, equal to the function of the power of the source over a designated distance.

light meter (exposure meter)
a device for measuring the light reflected from a subject, or in some cases, also measuring the intensity of light falling on the subject.

light reflectance value
the amount of light reflected by a given color. (Yellow has a higherlight reflectance value than purple).

light scatter
refer to halation.

light sensing units
a device capable of converting the energy of any light striking its surface to electrical or mechanical energy.

light source
aside from the sun, any device capable of converting electrical, mechanical, or chemical energy into a light-emitting form.

light-source geometry
the effective increasing of undercutting angle that occurs as the light source gets closer to the copy.

light stability
a measure of the ability of a pigment, dye, or other surface material to retain original color and physical properties, with extended exposure to sunlight or other light sources.

light struck
photosensitive materials accidentally exposed to light because of incorrect handling methods or because of light leaks in the camera or darkroom.

light table
a table with built-in lights under a ground glass (or similar) top used for spotting negatives, opaquing positives, tracing, examining, making overlays, and cutting of stencil film.

light trap
a passage into or out of a photographic darkroom, usually composed of overlapping portions or revolving shields that do not permit the passage of light rays from the outside.

lightfast
the capability of a material, coating, or ink to resist fading when exposed to sunlight or artificial lighting.

lightness
equals value of color; perception by which objects are distinguished from gray objects and light from dark objects.

lightweight
a class of fabric made of 26 or 28 single yarn.

lightweight paper
book grade paper of basis weight 40# or less with high opacity.

lim
abbreviation for limit.

lime glass
glass containing substantial quantities of lime, unusally associated with soda and silica.

lime crown glass
an optical crown glass containing substantial quantities of calcium oxide.

limit switch
electromechanical device used to control travel distance.

limited coordinates specification
a specification or standard issued to cover the need for requirements unique to one particular department, primarily found in military documents.

LIN
abbreviation for linear.

line art
single color diagram or drawing usually black and white with no intermediate grayscale.

line conversion
a method of changing a continuous tone image into a line illustration with bold, dark areas on a light background with no intermediate tones.

line copy
any type, design, drawing that can be reproduced without using a halftone screen.

line count
the number of lines of halftone dots per centimeter or linear inch.

line drawing
artwork, originals or printed matter consisting of lines or solids or dark and light tones.

line dropping
subsampling to reduce the number of raster lines in an image by dropping every nth raster line from the scan. See also pixel dropping.

line gauge
a ruler scaled in picas and points, but may also include inches and agate measurements, used by printers.

line image
a photographic image that is composed of fine, solid lines or dots or other shapes, all solid black or color, with no graduations of tones as in a continuous tone image.

line replication
creating more raster lines than are actually scanned by replicating every nth raster line from the scan. See also pixel replication.

line shot
an exposure, made in a camera, of line art copy or larger solid areas that are not graduated in tones.

line speed
the rate of travel of a substrate through a production line such as a drying or curing line.

line tone
a form of halftone made up of parallel lines instead of dots.

line width
the actual width of a screen printed line measured very accurately and precisely in mils; also refer to conductor width.

linear
related to a line, measurement involving a single dimension not square or cubic.

linearity
(1) the closeness of a calibration curve to a specified straight line. Non-linearity is expressed as the maximum deviation of any calibration point on a specified straight line during any one calibration cycle; (2) the degree to which the input of a signal is proportional to the output.

linen tester
a small magnifier mounted at a distance above its base equal to the focal length of the lens; also refer to loupe.

liner, release
the component of pressure sensitive stock that functions as a carrier for the face sheet.

lines
(1) thin markings denoting the contour of a design; (2) parallel rows of halftone dots.

lines per centimeter (LPC)
the number of dots per centimeter. (As a general rule the higher the dot count per centimeter, the higher the resolution).

lines per inch (LPI)
the number of dots per inch. (As a general rule the higher the dot count per inch, the higher the resolution).

lining
face sheet or cardboard stock where the face or surface material differs from the center core laminations.

lining gold (lining palladium; lining platinum)
royal metal compositions suitable for lining on glass or ceramic ware.

linkage
the connections or links between various components of a motion display and the display motor.

linoleates
generally, the salts or soaps of linseed fatty acid. (Cobalt, lead and manganese linoleates are widely used in drier compositions for inks).

linseed oil
a yellowish oil extracted from flaxseeds used as a drying oil in printing ink.

lint
(1) cotton fibers, usually loose on the surface of textile goods; (2) any small unintended foreign substance trapped in the first or second surfaces of a print and visible by sight or feel; (3) paper dust loose on the surface of paper products; (4) clinging bits of fuzz.

lipophilic
refer to hydrophobic.

liquefy
to convert or be converted from a solid form to a liquid.

liquid bright gold
a complex organic resinate of colloidal gold, fluxes, organic resins, and organic solvents suitable for application to glass or china, where high temperature firing develops a bright mirror finish.

liquid chromatography
a chromographic process for analyzing liquids and solutions where the moving phase is a liquid.

liquid crystals
thermochromic, micro-encapsulated materials that react to changes in temperature by changing color, and which may be added to screen printable clear coating.

liquid crystal display (LCD)
type of electronic changeable copy sign using liquid crystals that become opaque or clear when exposed to a controlled voltage.

liquid frisket
a water-soluble latex solution that becomes water-insoluble when dry, used in the preparation of resist stencils.

liquor ratio
the amount of water used in a dyeing process.

lisle
generic name for two ply fabric.

liter
metric standard measure of capacity equal to the volume occupied by one kilogram of water at 4ºC and at the standard atmosphere pressure of 700 millimiters; equal to 0.9463 US liquid quarts.

litho
abbreviation for lithographic or lithography.

litho film
a high contrast photographic film.

lithographic paper (litho paper)
paper that has been coated at least on one side to make it suitable for lithographic printing.

lithography
a method of printing by the planographic process using a coated plate whose image areas attract ink and whose non-image areas repel ink.

lithol red
a relatively brillant moderately lightfast organic red pigment with shades from orange to deep maroon, derived from a dystuff by treatment with metallic salts. (Lithol is a registered trademark of BSAF).

lithol rubine
a bluish red pigment used for process red (magenta) ink. (Lithol is a registered trademark of BSAF).

livering
an irreversible increase in the body of inks as a result of gelation or chemical reaction during storage; also refer to flocculation.

load
(1) the total force applied to a substrate in testing for compression resistance and tensile strength; (2) the electrical demand of a process expressed as power (watts), current (amps) or resistance (ohms).

load capacity
the maximum amount of weight (load) that a device, instrument, piece of equipment, etc., can support without causing excessive wear or damage to the device. (Load capacity can be specified in either a horizontal or vertical plane depending on the configuration of the specific device).

load deflection curve
curve where the increasing flexural loads are plotted on the ordinate axis and deflection caused by those loads are plotted on the abcissae axis.

lock
a device used in display construction that is designed to attach two or more parts; to hold parts in position more or less rigidly; to secure an angle or position of one or more parts in set-up.

lock stitch
a tack down stitch formed by three or four consecutive stitches of at least a 10 point movement.

loft
the relative ability of fibers to return to their original dimensions after being compressed.

logotype
name of a company or product in a design used as a trademark or identifier in advertising.

long
describes ink that has good flow characteristics; also refer to length.

long grain
paper made with the machine direction of the fibers in the longest dimension of the sheet.

long ton
a unit of weight equal to 2,240 pounds avoirdupois.

long-wave infrared
wavelengths greater than 4 microns within the infrared spectrum.

look-through
the appearance of paper when viewed by transmitted light, disclosing the texture of the sheet.

loom
a machine for weaving mesh or fabric from two series of yarns or threads crossing at right angles.

loop tack tester
instrument used to measure the tackiness of flexible pressure sensitive adhesives by determining the force required to break a bond formed when the adhesive is brought into contact with a test surface.

looping
an eratic stitch construction resulting in loops on the surface of the embroidery.

loose register
in the screen printing of multiple colors, occurs when the registration of one to the other is not considered critical or exact.

lossless compression
a compression technique that will retain all of the file’s original image characteristics. The perfect lossless compression technique remains elusive.

lossy compression
a compression technique that will sacrifice some image quality at low levels and continue to degrade more image quality as compression levels increase.

lot number
a control number assigned to a material by the manufacturer to track specifics on when and how it was made.

loupe
an adjustable-focus magnifier incorporating a precise measuring scale, with or without a self-contained light source, for inspecting fine detail; also sometimes spelled lupe.

low carbon hot oil
thermoplastic vehicles that burn out easily.

low elongation mesh
screen mesh made from a specially formulated polyester known as LE that has greater stability and can be streched to higher tensions.

low-energy dyes
dyes that require relatively low transfer temperatures (usually under 191ûC or 375û F) to effect sublimation.

lower case
uncapitalized letters of the alphabet.

lower exposure limit (LEL)
the lowest concentration of gas or vaper (% by volume in air which will burn or expolde if an ignition source is present.

low key
a photograph or other image whose tonal range is mostly in the shadow regions.

low tack adhesive
an adhesive with an initial non-aggressive character for ease of application that usually becomes a more permanent bond after 24 hours or other pre-selected time period.

lpc
acroynm for lines per centimeter.

lpi
acroynm for lines per inch.

LSE
acroynm for low surface engergy.

lumen
a unit of measure for the flow of light.

luminescence
a phenomena of light emission by a chemical composition which is film-forming and which absorbs light, releasing it when extraneous light sources have been removed; a “glow-in-the-dark” capability.

luminous reflectivity
when specifying a color, it is the ratio of the luminosity of the specimen to that of a standard reflector under identical conditions.

lupe
from the German word for magnifying glass, refer to loupe.

luster
a solution of organic pigments modified with suitable oils, resins, and solvents that are fired to produce an iridescent surface appearance on the ware.

LUTS
Look-Up Tables: A digital processing method to modify data from the input to the output, by using an array of data from a stored table.

lux
(1) a metric unit of illumination; (2) the amount of illumination produced by a light source of one candela intensity on a surface one meter or 3.28 ft distant (lux x 0.00929 equals foot candle); a unit used to define the illumination falling on a surface.

lux second
unit of exposure expressed in the metric system for illumination; equivalent to that produced by the illumination intensity of 1 candela at a distance of 1 meter for 1 second. (English equivalent is footcandle/second).

luxometer
photoelectric device used to control the duration of camera exposure according to actinic light and fluctuation of camera lamps.

LZW
The Lempel-Ziv-Welch image compression technique.

M
(1) prefix in the metric system for mega; (2) symbol for the quantity 1000; symbol for magenta in process color reproduction.
m
(1) prefix in the metric system for milli; (2) unit symbol in the metric system for meter.

m2
abbreviation for square meter.

m3
abbreviation for cubic meter.

mA
abbreviation for milliampere.

M weight
the weight of 1000 sheets of paper cut to its basis size.

macerate
the shredding of fibers, such as for use in a molding resin.

machine coated
paper or board that has been coated with a mixture of a mineral pigment and a suitable adhesive during the papermaking process.

machine direction (grain)
indicates the directional flow of a paper web from wet end to dry end on a papermaking machine; used interchangeably with grain direction.

machine finished
any paper whose surface has been finished to a generally smooth to medium finish on a papermaking machine.

machine glazed
a paper with a high gloss finish on one side only.

magenta
process red; a purplish color; one of the four process color inks used in printing process; designated by letter M.

magenta contact screen
a contact screen that has a dye instead of silver dot pattern, makes it possible to control halftone contrast by the use of color filters.

magenta printer
in process color reproduction the prepress material used to produce the magenta image.

magnesium carbonate
a very light odorless white extender used in some screen printing inks.

magnetic ink
ink made from iron oxide pigments (ferrosoferric oxide (Fe3O4) in a special crystalline form, made for magnetic ink character recognition (MICR).

magnetic ink character recognition (MICR)
the process of machine reading characters by means of magnetic sensing.

magnetic ink character recognition paper
paper free of all metallic and magnetizable particles with superior strength, levelness, good stiffness, and propensity for flatness dispite continual handling.

magnetron
a device designed to produce very short radio waves in radio-frequency energized UV lamps.

magnifier
refer to linen tester, loupe.

main exposure
a camera exposure that establishes highlight and intermediate tone detail.

make ready (set up)
the procedures necessary to properly adjust production equipment to perform a print or finishing operation; the act of making ready or setting up to print.

make-up
the arrangement of lines of type and illustrations into pages or sections.

maleic resin
a hard synthetic resin formed by the reaction of maleic acid and modified resin.

mandrel
a spindle or round device for supporting ware during printing.

manganese dryers
materials containing chemically combined manganese used to accelerate oxidation and polymerization of an ink film.

manila
a fiber from cardage, rope, or hemp plants used to manufacture strong tough papers.

manometer
an instrument for measuring the pressure of liquids and gases.

maquette
a preliminary model or prototype, usually smaller than the final work, designed to estimate, measure or gauge overall appearance during product planning.

mar resistance
property of an ink, coating, or substrate to remain unimpaired by slight abrasion, impact, or pressure; also called abrasion resistance.

margin
the white space extending from the printed edge to the edge of a sheet.

margin gluer
a device for gumming or applying adhesive to single wing easels, or edges of display parts that are to be adhered.

marking
another term for emblem or decal, also used as a generic term that including striping, accent, and trim pieces and die-cut lettering.

marver
a slab of machine cast iron, lubricated by wax and oil on which the gob (gather) at the end of a blow pipe is rolled to form a cylindrical shape before blowing into desired shape.

mask
a covering or coating used to protect, cover, or conceal.

masking
(1) technique of placing a mask in the path of light to stop passage, reduce the quantity of light, or modify a photographic result; (2) technique that allows manipulation of one area of an image while other areas remain unaffected.

masking film
(1) manual knife-cut film that does not permit passage of actinic light; (2) photographic-light sensitive film for making masks for color correction.

maskoid
refer to liquid frisket.

mass flow rate
volumetric flow rate times density such as pounds per hour or kilograms per minute.

masstone
(1) a color, viewed by reflective light, of a pigment-vehicle mixture, that is of sufficient thickness to obscure completely the background; (2) an area of solid color compared to a halftone print.

master
the original from which subsequent copies and comparisons are made.

master frame
a screen printing frame so designed that smaller screen printing frames may be affixed inside it for printing.

masthead
any design or logo type used as identification.

mat
the random arrangement of glass fibers used in reinforcing a molded shape such as an outdoor fiberglass sign.

Match Print™ proof
(1) a four color print that estimates how the final print will appear; (2) a direct digital color proofing process that allows the printer to see the colors desired in the final print; (3) a 3M registered trademark.

material
yard goods or cloth; substrate.

material safety data sheet (MSDS)
a product specification sheet that identifies chemical substances and other health and physical hazards encountered by employees handling the material.

matrix
the areas of substrate surrounding a die cut label or similar product that is discardable on use; also called waste; refer to weed.

matte finish
a dull, low-gloss, or no-gloss finish.

matte stock
a low-gloss or non-reflective stock material.

maturing range
time/temperature range required when firing ceramics.

maturing temperature
the temperature where glass decoration must be held for a selected time to achieve the desired cure properties.

Mayer rod/bar
a metal rod wound with a fine wire around its axis, used to draw an ink down evenly and at a given thickness.

maximum opacity
the thickness of an applied ink film where additional amounts of ink will not affect reflectance measurements.

maximum operating temperature
the maximum temperature at which a device can be safely operated.

MB
acroynm for megabyte.

Mb
acroynm for megabit.

MDPE
acroynm for medium density polyethylene.

mean temperature
the average of the maximum and minimum temperatures of a process at equilibrium.

mechanical
camera-ready art work.

mechanical flat-bed press
refer to flat-bed press.

mechanical hysteresis
the difference of the indication with increasing and decreasing strain loading, at identical strain values of the specimen.

mechanical properties
material properties associated with elastic or inelastic reactions to an applied force.

mechanical stretching device
an apparatus used for simultaneously tensioning screen mesh in both the warp and weft dimensions.

mechanically fed
refer to automatic machine.

mechanical resistance of ink
the extent to which a heavy bodied ink inhibits good printing, by resisting proper flow through the stencil with normal squeegee pressure.

media
(1) another term for substrate, a material to be printed; (2) plural form of medium.

medium
(1) a resinous fluid substance, or vehicle with which pigments are mixed; (2) a singular form of media, the material to be printed; (3) general term applied to the screen printing process as one of several print communication media.

medium finish
a non-coated sheet with a smoothness approaching a vellum finish.

medium weight
a classification for fabric of 22 to 24 single yard where the number of yarn denotes the overall fabric weight.

mega
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the power of six (10 6) or 1 000 000; prefix is M.

megabit (Mb)
a unit of memory measurement equal to approximately one million bits.

megabyte (MB)
a unit of memory measurement equal to approximately one million bytes; acroynm MB.

megarad (Mrad)
standard measurement of energy per unit mass such as 2.30 calories per gram equals one million rads (1 Mrad).

MEK
acroynm for methyl ethyl ketone.

melamine
a very resistant thermoset plastic made from the resin of melamine and formaldehyde, has excellent hardness, clarity, and electrical prperties.

melt
(1) to change a solid into a liquid by the application of heat; (2) the liquid resulting from a melting action.

melting point
temperature at which a given solid begins to liquefy under standard conditions.

membrane switch
a series of thermally stable films containing a backer board, spacer, circuit sheet, and graphic overlay, which together perform the function of an electronic switch.

memory
the capacity of a plastic or other material to return to an original state after applied stress.

mercerization
a treatment for cotton yarn or cloth to make it look silky or to accept dye.

mercury halide lamp
a light source that uses an electrical discharge enclosed within a quartz glass tube containing mercury to produce light for stencil exposure; also referred to as metal halide lamp.

mercury oxide, yellow
a mineral pigment used to dilute burnished gold in glass decoration; (this oxide is no longer used because of its toxic hazard).

mercury vapor lamp
an enclosed light source that produces radiation by passing an electrical current through gaseous mercury.

Merrow™
(1) edging around a patch or emblem; (2) trademark of Merrow Machine Company.

mesh
(1) a uniformly spaced arrangement of interlaced or interlocked strands of thread or wire; screen material; (2) the open space between the threads of a woven material; (3) a type of garment fabric characterized by its net like open appearance.

mesh aperture
the space between the woven threads of screen printing mesh through which the ink passes during printing.

mesh composition
type of fiber used to make screen material such as polyester, nylon or stainless steel.

mesh count
the number of openings in a screen mesh in centimeters or inches.

mesh counter
a magnifier with a 6.35mm (1/4 inch) square opening, by means of which the number of threads per centimeter or linear inch of a screen printing mesh can be determined; also referred to as a linen tester.

mesh geometry
the dimensions required to specify the three-dimensional aspects of mesh structure.

mesh marks
(1) a fine, cross-hatch pattern left by the printing mesh in the ink film; (2) a condition occurring when certain areas of the screen do not properly separate from the substrate; refer to screen marks.

mesh number (mesh count)
the number of openings percentimeter or linear inch in any given screen printing mesh; the higher the mesh number or mesh count, the finer the weave.

mesh, plain weave
uniform pattern of weaving with one over and one under in each direction.

mesh opening
a measure of the distance across the space between two parallel threads, expressed in microns.

mesh opening area
refer to aperture percentage, percentage open area.

mesh stretcher
a mechanical device for tensioning screen printing mesh over the screen frame.

mesh tensioning
the act of imparting stretch in warp and weft directions to a screen printing mesh preparatory to securing the mesh to the frame.

mesh thickness
the total average height of two crossing threads in a woven screen mesh measured under tension.

mesh, twill weave
weaving pattern with a configuration of one over and two under; (deposits approximately 20% more ink than plain weave).

mesh volume
a mesh aperture width and length multiplied, then multiplied by the total thickness of the mesh without consideration of stencil thickness.

met
abbreviation for metallic.

metal cloth
refer to metal screen mesh.

metal foil
very thin sheet of metal capable of being laminated to another sheet material such as paper, to provide a metal facing, or being used, without laminating to a support sheet, in the manufacture of parts by chemical milling.

metal halide lamp
a mercury light source enhanced by the addition of metallic elements to increase emission spectra and output energy; also refer to mercury halide lamp.

metal mask
a stencil made entirely of metal, with open (print) areas having been etched into it, leaving completely open apertures, void of screen mesh. Used for depositing solder onto surface mount circuit boards.

metal screen mesh
a screen printing material that is woven from wire strands of stainless steel, phosphor bronze, nickel or copper usually used for very close tolerance screen printing or where abrasive inks such as frit for ceramics and glass are used; also referred to as wire cloth.

metallic fiber
an inorganic fiber made from minerals and metal.

metallic ink
an ink that produces an effect gold, silver, bronze, or metallic color.

metallize
to impart a metallic appearance to a plastic or other substrate, by depositing a microscopic layer of metal.

metallized mesh
screen mesh woven of polyester threads that have been totally encased in nickel by an electrocoating process.

metallized film
a plastic or resinous film that has been coated on one side with a very thin layer of metal by vacuum.

metamerism
a condition where colors change hue under different light sources.

metamerism, instrument
the phenomenon in a scanner where two colors that look the same to an observer look different to the scanner, or two colors that look different to an observer look the same to the scanner.

meter
metric system unit of length equivalent to 39.37 inches.

meter, cubic
refer to cubic meter.

meter, square
refer to square meter.

methacrylate resin
a type of resin produced by the polymerization of methacrylic esters.

methanol
one of the alcohols that has a high toxic and solvent power used in printing inks where high volatility is essential.

methyl alcohol
used in combination with ethylene dichloride as a solvent and thinner for some types of water-soluble blockouts used to remove lacquer knife-cut stencils from a screen.

methy carbitol
one of the trade names for diethylene glycol mono methyl ether, a high boiling solvent for printing inks and pastes used as a solvent for many natural and synthetic resins, dyes, fats, oils and waxes.

methy cellosolve
one of the trade names for ethylene glycol mono methyl ether used in lacquer formulations, having high solvent strength for cellulose acetate; considered to be toxic.

methyl chloride
used in combination with ethyl alcohol as a solvent and thinner with some types of water-soluble blockouts.

methy ethyl ketone (MEK)
widely used in the manufacture of lacquer-type screen printing inks and industrial lacquers, also used as a thinner for some screen printing inks of lacquer base.

methy isobutyl ketone (MIBK)
a solvent used in the manufacture of lacquer compounds and some resins such as vinyl.

methyl violet
a class of strong purple dyes and pigments.

metric system
an international decimal system of weights and measures.

metric ton
a unit of mass and weight equal to 1000 kilograms or 2,205 pounds.

mezzograph
a halftone screen with a grain formation intead of ruled lines.

mezzotint
the dots that form a contact screen for making simulated halftone effects that are irregular in shape and size and non-uniform in position.

mg
symbol for milligram.

mho
backward spelling of ohm, a unit of conductivity equal to the conductivity of a body where resistance is one ohm.

MHz
acroynm for megahertz.

MIBK
acroynm for methyl isobutyl ketone.

MIC
abbreviation for microscope.

MICR
abbreviation for magnetic ink character recognition.

micro
prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative power of six (10-6) or 0.000 001; symbol μ.

microadjustment
the fine tuning adjustments that allow for precise movement in all directions.

microcircuits
electronic circuits produced with extremely small dimensional specifications, expressed in Angstrom units equal to 1/100,000 cm.

microelectronics
a technology dealing with the processes for producing electronic circuits by fabricating solid structures, printing circuits and various electronic systems, and components or parts of subminiature size.

microlayer
an extremely thin imprint usually as applied in subminiature circuit production.

micrometer
(1) micron, defined as 10-6 meter; (2) instrument used to measure thickness, or caliper.

micron
(1) a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative power of six (10-6) or one millionth (0.000,001) of a meter, 0.000039 inch. (2) a term used to express the wavelength of light or the size of a pigment particle.

micro-registration
a method of on-press adjustment that allows for very small changes in position and allows for the fine tuning of print registration.

microscope mesh counter
a device utilizing a microscope and redicule to counting the number of threads over a defined distance.

microwave drying
a technique using ultra-short electromagnetic waves to transfer energy from an electromagnetic field to a polar dielectric such as screen printing ink generating heat to cause drying of the ink film.

mid-tone (middle tone)
the tonal range of color or graduations of grays that lie halfway between the lightest highlight and the darkest shadow.

mid-tone dot
a point in the middle gray area of a halftone that equals or comes close to the average of the nearly background area.

migration
the movement of a substance, ink, dye, or coating into another causing unwanted color change; also refer to dye migration.

mike
to measure the thickness of a substrate using a micrometer.

mil
a metric unit of length measurement equal to 0.001 inch or 25.4 microns.

mileage
refer to coverage.

mill
refer to ball mill.

mill swatch
substrate sample book provided by a mill.

milled flock
nonuniform flock fibers typically produced from cotton or synthetic textile waste materials; also refer to flock.

milli
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative 3 (10-3) or 0.001; symbol m.

millijoule
a measure of light output equal to 1/1000 of a joule.

milliliter
a unit of capacity measurement in the metric system equal to 1/1000 of a liter, 1.0 cubic centimeters or 0.06102 cubic inches; symbol ml.

millimeter
a unit of length measurement in the metric system equal to 0.001 meters or 0.03937 inches; symbol mm.

millimicron
a standard measure for a light wave.

millisecond
one thousandth of a second.

milori blue (Chinese blue)
refer to iron blue.

MIL SPEC
abbreviation for military specification.

minature
a size class of electronic circuits below the usual size standards.

mineral oil
a light hydrocarbon oil, a distillate of petroleum.

mineral spirits
an aliphatic solvent with a mild odor that is one of the most widely used solvent and thinning agents of any of the hydrocarbons.

minuscule
a lower case letter.

mirror
(1) function of reversing type or image in a design; (2) a software function that vertically or horizonally reverses on image.

mirror resist
a screen printing ink that can be printed on glass which is to be silvered to make mirrors, and which resists the silvering acids to form a clear pattern on the glass.

mirrorized polyester
polyester sheet film that has been surfaced by metallizing with a highly reflective material resembling the surface of a conventional silvered glass mirror.

miscible
ability to mix with another material.

misprint
a print that does not meet quality standards; also referred to as a reject.

misregistration
an incorrectly positioned image during printing or finishing; or the failure to be properly aligned, one color imprint to another.

mist
(1) a watery vapor suspended in the atmosphere; (2) a watery vapor condensed on a surface.

MIT tester
a durable tool used by a mill to measure folding resistance; also refer to Schopper tester.

mitography
a comprehensive term coined by Albert Kosloff (deceased), meaning screen printing. (The word was taken from the Greek prefix mitos, meaning “threads of fibers” and the suffix graphein, meaning “to write or print”).

mixed life
the length of time during which two or more components will not react unfavorably after intermixing.

mixing white
a white ink, either transparent or opaque, used in making tints.

mixture
a composition of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded to each other.

ml
abbreviation in the metric system for milliliter

mm
abbreviation in metric system for millimeter.

mobile
a display composed of several separate parts that are counterbalanced and suspended, so that each part may move independently of others in a light air current.

mock leno weave
a fabric weave that draws two or more threads together and then leaves a space between the next grouping. The warp threads do not actually cross each other as in a true leno weave.

mock-up
refer to blank dummy.

modacrylic fiber
a manufactured fiber with higher resistance to chemicals and combustion and a higher specific gravity than acrylic.

model
the original creation from which a mold is made.

modifier
an inert ingredient added to a formulation that changes its properties.

modular
a machine system where several different or similar operations are controlled by a computer.

modulated transfer function (MTF)
a test that measures the optical frequency response of a scanner or other optical system.

module
an electronic circuit, part, or unit consisting of prescribed standard or fixed dimensions, serving prescribed electrical functions, used as sub-assemblies in the construction of electronic equipment.

modulus of elasticity
a measure of the rigidity of a material; the ratio of the stress or load applied to the strain or deformation produced in a material that is elastically deformed.

modulus of rupture (MOR)
the fracture strength of a material under a bending load.

Mohs scale
a tool for measuring the relative resistance of material to scratching.

moiré
an undesirable optical pattern that occurs when one regular set of parallel lines or dots crosses another set, at various angles of intersection or by the regular pattern of mesh threads intersecting the halftone screen pattern.

moisture content
amount of water present in a material.

moisture equilibrium
a condition attained by a product when the amount of water absorbed and the amount desorbed, as shown by a change in weight, shows no net difference or trend.

moisture proof
the property of a material that makes it substantially impervious to water vapor; also designated moisture barrier.

moisture regain
the ability of a completely dry fiber to absorb moisture at 70 degrees F and 65% RH.

moisture resistant
a substrate or material that will not easily change its chemical and physical properties due to moisture.

moisture transport
the movement of water from one side of a fabric to the other caused by capillary, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action.

moisture vapor transmission rate
a measure of the rate of water vapor transmission through a pressure sensitive label or other material.

molarity
unit of measure of concentration expressed in mols per kilogram of solvent or mols per liter of solution.

mold
(1) a form or cavity designed to determine the shape or form of an application; (2) to shape plastic or other materials into another form or design by application of heat and pressure; (3) a form or cavity used as a holding device for three-dimensional parts during printing.

mold release
a lubricant that prevents a plastic from sticking to its mold; also referred to as a release agent.

molding shrinkage
the difference in dimension between a molded part and the cavity in which it was molded, measured at room temperature.

molecular-dye films
a diazo film, suitable for photographic contacting only, and popular for high resolution capability such as in microfilming and the printed circuit industry.

molecular weight
the sum total of atomic masses of the various elements found in a molecule.

molecule
(1) a group of atoms bonded together that forms the fundamental structural unit of most organic substances; (2) the smallest unit of a substance that still retains the properties of that substance.

molybdate orange
an inorganic pigment used to produce opaque orange and red inks, contains a mixture of lead chromate and lead molybdate; (no longer used because of its toxic hazard).

molleton
a thick cotton fabric with a long nap that is similar to flannel.

monitor
a device for continuously measuring a pollutant or effluent.

monitor calibration
a process used to adjust monitor color specifications, saturation, and brightness into synchronization with the final output device.

monkey pot
a small crucible for glass melts.

monochlorbenzene
used effectively as a solvent for vinyl resins in non-flammable lacquer coatings and inks, and is also a solvent for ethyl cellulose and other resins.

monochromatic
a design or photograph represented by various shades and/or tints of one color; a single color.

monofil
abbreviation for monofilament.

monofilament
a fiber strand composed of a single thread or filament.

monofilament polyester
screen printing mesh woven from single strands of extruded polyester plastic.

monofilament polyester screens
printing screen made with monofilament mesh.

monogramming
embroidered personal initials or a logo.

monolithic circuit
a circuit consisting of a semi-conductor such as silicon, into which all of the parts are fabricated.

monomer
(1) a small molecule of an organic substance that is the most basic structural unit of a polymer, usually a gas or liquid, used in forming polymeric chains in combination with oligomers and prepolymers; (2) chemical unit used in building a polymer; (3) a single unit molecule used in combination with oligomers in formulating UV curable inks and coatings.

monocalent ion
an ion with a single positive or negative charge.

monotone
a print produced in one color.

montage
the process of cutting out parts and mounting prints or parts of prints on one support for the purpose of photographing or reproducing it.

MOR
acroynm for modulus of rupture.

mordant
(1) a reagent for fixing coloring matter in textiles; (2) a corrosive substance such as acid used in etching.

morphing
moving smoothly from one image to another by having the computer animate a sequence transpasing points in the starting image to corresponding points in the final image.

moss stitch
refer to chain stitch.

mottle (ink)
blotchy, spotty, or uneven appearance of printed image, most pronounced in solid areas.

mottling
a texturing seen in the smooth or monotone areas of an image. This can be due to faulty processing and a number of improperly used digital processes e.g. excessive unsharp masking.

mounting
the combining of two or more substrates or media into a single laminated sheet.

mounting machine
a machine which laminates paper to board in one operation.

MP
abbreviation for melting point.

Mrad
acroynm for megarad.

MSDS
acroynm for material safety data sheet.

MTF
acroynm for modulated transfer function.

muffle kiln/furnace
a kiln or lehr constructed so that the ware is not subjected to direct radiant heat from the elements (electric) or to direct flame from burners (oil, gas).

mullen tester
refer to bursting strength tester.

muller
a flat bottom glass pestle for grinding color pigment; power driven mullers have two circular glass grinding surfaces.

multicolor press
a screen printing machine capable of applying more than one color on the substrate at one pass through the printing sequence.

multifil
abbreviation for multifilament.

multifilament
a screen mesh that is woven from twisted multi-strands of thread.

multilayered printed circuit
a unit that consists of a number of thin copper-clad laminates bonded with a suitable insulating adhesive with provision made for interconnection between the layers; a circuit where two or more layers are bonded together, one on top of the other, with heat and pressure.

Munsell Color System
a method to classify surface color in a solid where the vertical dimension is called value, the circumferential dimension hue, and the radial dimension chroma.

Murray-Davis equation
a relationship used to calculate the relative apparent dot area in a halftone tint by comparing the light absorbing power of the tint to that of a solid.

mutagen
a chemical or physical effect that can alter genetic material in an organism and can result in physical or functional changes in all subsequent generations.

mutt
typesetting term for an em space.

mutton
refer to em.

Mylar
trademark of the DuPont Corporation for polyethylene terephtalate (polyester) film.

mystery turntable
a display turntable that is turned by a motor and has the capability of unpredictable, constantly changing rhythm.

N
(1) prefix in the metric system for Newton: (2) an en space.
n
prefix in the metric system for nano.

NAAQS
acroynm for National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

NAICS
acroynm for North American Industrial Classification System.

naked glass
plain ware prior to decoration.

nameplate
an identification plate that can be engraved, etched, embossed or printed, and then affixed to a machine or device.

nano
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative 9 power (10-9 ) or 0.000 000 001; 0.1 Angstroms; symbol is n.

nanometer (nm)
a standard unit of distance used in measuring wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum (equal to 10-9 meter or 10 angstroms); one billionth of a meter.

nanosecond
one billionth of a second.

nanotechnology
a complicated manufacturing process used to impart various high performance properties directly into the fiber, so that it will be inherent and not wash or wear out.

nap
the soft or fuzzy surface of a brushed fabric or leather.

naphtha
an aliphatic low KB hydrocarbon solvent; any of several volatile hydrocarbon liquids derived chiefly from coal tar, used as a solvent.

naphthenate driers
compounds of naphthenic acid with metals, usually cobalt or manganese, used to accelerate oxidation of an ink film.

narcosis
general anesthesia, or loss of feeling due to exposure to certain chemical vapors, may be accompanied by loss of consciousness.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
a set of maximum concentration levels for air pollutants established by the 1970 U.S. Clean Air Act; particulate matter, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are among the substances regulated.

National Bureau of Standards (NBS)
established by Congress in 1901 changed name in 1988 to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a division of the Department of Commerce (US) that has responsibility for weights and measures.

National Electric Code (NEC)
electrical safety code adopted in the United States.

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
develops product standards and participates in developing US National Electric Code and US National Electric Safety Code.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
disseminates, develops, and publishes fire safety standards in the United States.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
formally National Bureau of Standards, a federal government agency under Commerce Department, Technology Administration, that has responsibility for weights and measures in the United States.

National Paint and Coatings Association (NPCA)
company manufacturers (US) of paint and chemical coating equipment and supplies.

native files
original computer files in their original application form for digital graphic or publication.

natural aging
a change, if any, in a material occurring when the material is exposed to normal environmental conditions.

natural fiber
any fiber of vegetable or animal origin.

NBS
the acroynm for the U.S. National Bureau of Standards; changed name to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1988.

N/cm
abbreviation for Newtons per centimeter.

NCR
acroynm for no-carbon required paper.

NDT
acroynm for nondestructive testing.

neck ring
a metal mold part that forms the finish of a hollow glass article.

necking
local reduction of a cross-sectional area of a tensile specimen that may occur during loading.

NEC
acroynm for National Electric Code (US).

neck lock
a display lock used in the setup of rectangular parts.

needle
slender piece of steel with a point, ball, taper or other shape on one end with a nearby hole or eye for thread used in machine sewing of fabrics.

negative
a photographic image on film where the black values in the original subject are transparent and the whie values are opaque.

negative holder
a device designed to hold a film negative in proper position in an enlarger during exposure.

negative opaque
an opaque brushing consistency liquid used to repair pinholes or other blemishes on negatives.

negative plane
the plane within a camera that is occupied by the film when ready to expose after proper focusing and removal of the ground glass.

negative temperature coefficient
a decrease in resistance with an increase in temperature.

NEMA
acronym for the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (US).

NEMA standards
property values adopted as standard by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (US).

neon
(1) a colorless inert gaseous element comprising 0.0012 percent of normal air; (2) a fluorescent, a color of ink or dye that is especially bright.

nesting
placement of images of a job in an arrangement to minimize waste of material.

network
a group of machines linked via a central computer.

Neugebauer equations
a set of linear equations used to calculate the tristimulus values of halftone color mixtures and combinations when the dot area of the contributing colors are known.

neutral
(1) any color that has no hue such as white, gray, and black; (2) the absence of acid or alkaline activity in a material having a pH of 7; (3) the presence of an equal concentration of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.

neutral atmosphere
an atmospheric condition in a firing kiln that is neither strongly oxidizing or reducing.

neutral-density filter
a camera filter that uniformly reduces all colors of light striking the lens.

neutral pH paper
an acid-free paper.

neutral wedge
refer to gray scale.

newsboard
a paper board used primarily in the set-up box trade, also used as a core for lining one or both faces with a higher quality paper, made from reclaimed newspapers.

new source performance standards (US)
limits on effluent as applied to new industrial or commercial installations in the United States; these standards are generally more stringent than those of existing plants.

newsprint
an inexpensive paper made from groundwood or mechanical pulp used chiefly in printing newspapers.

newton
the basic unit of force in the metric system; the amount of force necessary to accelerate one kilogram of mass at a rate of one meter per second squared.

newton rings
a pattern of minute, colored, concentric annular shapes that form between closely spaced polished surfaces, similar to a drop of oil on water. The phenomenon is more or less common in vacuum frames and pressure contact frames during exposure to film through a glass layer.

newton value
unit of measure, used in screen mesh tensioning, generally expressed in Newtons per centimeter.

Newtons per centimeter (N/cm)
a unit of measure used to determine the amount of deflection of a weighted object placed on a tnsioned screen mesh.

newtonian fluids
describes the rheological characteristics of a liquid that has an absolute viscosity that does not change with temperature fluctuations or shear rate. (Examples of Newtonian fluids are water, syrup, mineral oils, lacquers, and solvents).

newtonian liquid
fluids that have an absolute viscosity such as water.

NFPA
acronym for National Fire Protection Association (US).

NFPA 30
a National Fire Protection Association (US) safety code covering the handling and storage of flammable liquids.

nibs
small sharp tip or point of foreign material which project above the surface of an applied ink film.

nigrosine
very deep blue or black coal tar dyestuffs.

nip point
the point of contact between two in-running rollers.

nippers
small scissors like cutting tool for trimming thread.

NIST
acroynm for National Institute of Standards and Technology (US) formally National Bureau of Standards.

nitrocellulose
a film forming material produced by the treatment of cotton or wood fibers with nitric acid, and widely used in lacquer type inks made for screen printing.

nitrocellulose laquers
screen printing inks or coatings made by combining nitrocellulose with suitable vehicle, pigments, solvents and drying agents.

nitrocellulose screen printing ink
pigmented ink composed of nitrocellulose, film former, plasticizer, and high boiling solvents, similar to nitrocellulose lacquer except for high boiling solvent and increased pigment loading with more plasticizers.

nitrogen blanket
an inert atmosphere created by introducing nitrogen gas into a UV curing chamber, to counter oxygen inhibition of curing reaction.

nm
abbreviation for nanometer.

noise
an unwanted random and peristant disturbance that obscures or reduces the clarity or quality of a signal; a distortion of an image’s analog signal.

nomenclature
descriptive words.

Nomex
DuPont tradename for a temperature resistant flame retardant nylon.

nominal
a measurement that is a designation or theoretical size that may vary from the actual.

nominal value
the prescribed value or capacity of an electronic component.

nominal weight
the basis weight of paper with a fluctuation tolerance of five percent.

nonactinic
light rays that do not affect sensitized surfaces within a resonable time.

nonblocking
an applied adhesive film that will not adhere to another surface under stacking conditions.

noncorrelated noise
a random distortion in an analog signal causing snow, speckles, or random spots throughout an image.

nondrying oils
those oils used in vehicles which do not form dry surface films when exposed to atmosphere.

nonflammable
any substance that does not support combustion.

nonimage areas
portion of mechanical, negative, or screen that will not print.

nonimpact printer
a printing device that creats images on a substrate without striking it such as ink jet, photo copier, and laser printing device.

nonNewtonian
substances such as fluids that have an apparent viscosity. (Generally, screen printing inks are considered nonNewtonian fluids).

nonoriented film
film that has not been subject to stress to align the polymer chains and improve properties.

nonpolar solvents
aromatic and hydrocarbon solvents that have low dielectric constants.

nonporous surfaces
surfaces such as glass, ceramic, or metal where the tendency of the ink to absorb slightly or bond with an application is absent.

nonrain lap
the various sheets of an outdoor poster laid-out and printed so that when posted, the bottom edge of the top sheets will be overlapped by the top edge of the bottom sheets.

nonreflective ink
a black ink used to form the optical characters that are read by a scanner or OCR device.

nonreproducible color
refers to certain colors that cannot be exactly reproduced by process printing especially fluorescent colors.

nonrigid plastic
a plastic material with an apparent modulus of elasticity of not more than 50,000 psi at 25ºC (77ºF) under specified test conditions.

nonscratch inks
inks which have high or total abrasion resistance when dry or cured.

nontactile
switch constructed without snap action; switch with tactile ratio of zero.

nonvolatile
any substance that will not evaporate at ordinary or room temperature.

nonvolatile matter
the ingredients of an ink or coating composition which, after drying, are left behind on the material.

nonwetting
failure of an ink to coat evenly on a substrate to which it is applied.

nonwoven material
a material that is matted, entangled with a binder forming an interlocking web of fibers; fabrics that are formed instead of woven or knitted.

nonyellowing adhesive
acrylic-based adhesive that does not yellow with age.

normal (axial) stress
the force per unit area on a given plane within a body.

normalize
to shift the readings representing a quantity to within a specified range on an instrument.

North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS
replaced the US Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), developed joinly by the United States, Canada, and Mexico to provide comparability in statistics about business activities across North America.

no-screen bump
refer to bump exposure.

notch
small serration or mark along the edge of film that are used for identifying and positioning.

nozzle
an orifice through which jets of ink are ejected to form an image in ink jet printing.

NPCA
acronym for the National Paint and Coatings Association (US).

NPDES permit (US)
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the U.S. EPA or an approved state program to point sources which discharge process wastewater to public waters.

NR
acroynm for natural rubber.

N/R
a mark used with reference to containers which indicates “non-returnable.”

nuance
a subtle graduation.

nuclear radiation resistance
the ability of a material to withstand nuclear radiation and still perform its designated function.

number of squares
a ratio, rather than a physical measurement, of width to length used in determining resistance value by formula of a printed resistor.

numbering
printing characters in a consecutive order.

nut
refer to en.

nylon
a synthetic polyamide fiber that has elastic properties that is used for making textile products and screen mesh; also refer to polymide.

nylon dyeing
a dye process using acid dye to color garments made of nylon.

nylon monofilament
(1) a single strand or thread of nylon of even diameter and smooth surface; (2) generally, the term indicates nylon screen printing mesh.

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~ by Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار on March 28, 2000.

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