Image Dictionary O P Q R

object color
the aspect of the appearance of an object dependent upon the spectral composition of the incident light, the spectral reflectance or transmittance of the object, and the spectral response of an observer.
obliteration
the ability of an opaque overprint to hide completely the color underneath; also sometimes referred to as obliterating power.

object
a graphic or picture that is embedded in a document file using object linking and embedding (OLE).

object linking and embedding (OLE)
a standard method for inserting an object into a document, where the document retains a connection or link with its original program.

object oriented
a graphic image that is created with mathematical descriptions instead of pixels.

obscure
glass that has been made translucent by grinding, sandblasting, or acid etching.

observer, standard
spectral response characteristics of the average observer defined by CIE.

obsidian
a natural glass that is produced by volcanic action.

occupational exposure limit
minimum allowable concentration of toxic substances in workroom air to protect workers who are exposed to toxic substances over a working limfetime.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
a US federal law enacted in 1970 to protect workers from industrial hazards.

ochre
a naturally occurring yellow iron oxide used as a pigment in ink formuations.

OBR
acroynm for optical bar reader or optical bar recognition; refer to optical mark reader (OMR).

OCR
acronym for optical character reader or optical character recognition; a scanner that provides a means of reading printed characters on documents and converting them into digital codes that can be read by a computer.

OCR ink
ink that is composed of low reflectance pigments such as carbon black that can be read by OCR equipment.

OD
outside dimension of an item.

ODB
acroynm for outdoor board.

ODC
acroynm for ozone depleting chemical or compound.

ODC (On-Demand Color)
this term typically refers to short run color printing. These processes include ink-jet, electrostatic and direct-to-press.

OEL
acroynm for occupational exposure limit.

OEM
acroynm for original equipment manufacturer.

off color
color variation from a sample or specification.

off contact distance
the space between the bottom of the screen and the top of the substrate; also refer to snap-off.

off contact printing
screen printing with the print screen adjusted slightly above the substrate so that it does not make contact with the substrate except during printing.

off square
a material where two or more corners deviate from an exact 90º angle.

offset
(1) an indirect printing form; (2) the unintentional transfer of ink to the bottom of the printing screen, the back of a succeeding sheet, or other undesired surface.

offset paper
a grade of paper manufactured in a range of weights in white or light colors with good dimensional stability, cleanliness, and pick resistance; alterative term for uncoated book paper.

offset printing
planographic printing by indirect image transfer.

offset stock
paper manufactured to accept offset printing ink; also referred to as offset paper and uncoated book paper.

offsetting
refer to offset.

ogee
a distortion of an image using an S-shaped curve as one baseline, gives image a wavy look.

ohm
unit of electrical resistance used for measuring or testing the capacity of resistance; the unit of resistance equivalent to the resistance of a conductor in which one volt produces a current of one ampere.

Ohm’s Law
the current in a curcuit is directly proportional to the voltage E, and inversely proportional to the resistance R: E=IR, I=E/R. R=E/I.

ohmeter
an instrument used for measuring electrical resistance in ohms.

ohms per square
a means of evaluating the resistance value of an ink mixture, or the resistance value of a square of ink one mil thick.

oil absorption
the quantity of oil required to completely wet a definite weight of a given pigment, forming a paste.

oil-in-water emulsion
an emulsion that has water as the external phase and an oil as the internal phase.

oil soluable resin
a resin that will dissolve in a drying oil at slightly elevated temperature to yield an homogenous film.

oiticica
a drying oil used in ink formulations made from seeds of licahia rigida tree; similar in properties to tung oil.

OJT
acroynm for on-the-job.

OK sheet
a press sheet that closely matches the original proof and has been approved by the customer, used as a guide to judge print quality as production run progresses.

OLE
acroynm for object linking and embedding.

olefin
a chemical family of unsaturated hydrocarbons; also refer to polyolefin.

oleo resinous
describes solvents or inks derived from crude oil, or having vehicles compounded from crude oil derivatives.

olephilic
oil receptive.

olephobic
oil repellent.

oligomer
(1) a multiple unit molecule consisting of several monomeric units in chemical union; (2) base resin used in UV ink formulations.

OMR
acroynm for optical mark reader.

on-contact printing
screen printing with the print screen in contact with the substrate both during and after printing.

one-man squeegee
a squeegee mounted on a counter balanced device so that the operation of very large squeegees can be accomplished with a minimum of effort.

one-side finish
paper finished on one side only.

one-way screen
a halftone screen having lines running in one direction only.

oozing adhesive
adhesive that is forced out from between the face film and backing sheet of pressure sensitive laminates by pressure in die or guillotine cutting.

Op art
art form using arbitrary patterns of shape, color, and value to create optical illusions or effects that suggest movement.

opacifier
a chemical agent added to a material to make it opaque.

opacimeter
a test instrument used to measure the degree of opacity or show through.

opacity
a state where a printed film or a substrate does not permit the passage of light; the state of being opaque.

opaque
(1) an area or material that completely blocks out unwanted light; (2) red or black liquid used to blockout or cover unwanted clear or gray areas on a negative; (3) white liquid used to cover unwanted black images in an original copy; (4) to paint out areas on a negative that are not to print, refer to blockout; (5) the property of paper that makes it less transparent.

opaque edge (safe edge)
the edge of a sheet of photoscreen stencil film that has been covered with opaque tape or other opaque instrument, where during exposure develops and washes out with the design portions of the stencil, thus providing a narrow space for handling of the sheet in order to minimize handling damage.

opaque ink
a screen printing ink that conceals the color beneath it.

opaque vinyl
a vinyl that is pigmented, so no light passes through it.

opaquing
refer to opaque.

open area
refer to aperture percentage.

open circuit
the lack of electrical contact in any part of the measuring circuit, usually indicated by rapid large jumps in potential, followed by an off-scale reading.

open cutter and creaser
a platen press used for die cutting and creasing.

open end envelope
an evelope that opens on the short dimension.

open end yarn
yarn produced without being spun; a hard, uniformly blended yarn considered inferior to ring-spun yarn.

open gold
a nondrying gold.

open kiln
a kiln that exposes the ware directly to the flame.

open side envelope
an envelope that opens on the long dimension.

operating force
the force required to achieve contact resistance; the amount of force required to complete a switch closure in a membrane switch.

operational characteristic curve
a graph that dispalys the probability of accepting a sample lot as a function of the quality of the lot in process.

OPS
acroynm for oriented polystyrene film.

optical axis
an imaginary line that runs through the focus and center of the lens of a camera.

optical brightener
a chemical used to make white garments whiter.

optical character recognition (OCR)
electronic equipment that converts printed, handwritten, and graphic information into a form that can be read, interpreted, and displayed by a computer.

optical center
the center of a rectangle as it appears to the human eye, usually a point slightly above the geometric center or about 2/5 from the top of the rectangle.

optical comparator
a visual inspection device that uses large ground glass screens for imaging; offers a much larger view than a mircoscope.

optical mark reader (OMR)
electronic equipment that scans, interprets, and converts bar coded information into a machine readable form.

optical registration
a register system employing an optical scanner for obtaining the correct positioning of substrate on a press.

optical resolution
the maximum physical resolution of a device. Optical resolution provides better quality than interpolated resolution of the same number, which uses software to create additional image information.

optical reverse
the use of mirrors to reverse a camera image.

optical sampling rate
the number of samples in pixels per inch that are taken by a scanner per linear distance, as determined by the CCD array, the optical system, and the motion of the carriage.

optimum tension level
the most favorable screen tension required for a given set of printing conditions.

optimum thickness
the best, most desirable thickness allowable by specification.

orange peel
very small elevations and valleys in an ink film, coating, or glaze that failed to flow out properly, surface characteristics resemble the texture of an orange peel.

organdy
a multifilament woven cotton mesh once used for screen mesh; no longer used in the industry.

organic
derived from living organisms; pigment or chemical compound comprised of raw material from animal, plant, or carbon origin.

organic color
raw materials derived from animal or vegetable origin.

organic peroxide
an organic compound that contains a structural deviation of hydrogen peroxide, where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been repaced by an organic radical.

organic pigment
raw material colorant that is derived from coal tar or its derivatives,usually stronger and brighter than inorganic pigments.

organic solvent
organic material including diluent and thinner that are liquid at standard conditions and are used as dissolvers, viscosity reducer or cleaning agent.

organosol
a suspension of resin particles in origanic solvent typically made with vinyl resin or plasticizers.

orientation
(1) the direction a page is printed, horizontal (landscape), vertical (portrait); (2) the condition of polymers being positioned in a direction parallel to the fiber length, as in a polyester mesh fiber that has been highly tensioned.

oriented polystyrene (OPS)
a transparent glass-like polymerized styrene material, not modified for impact, heat resistance, solvent and chemical resistance.

origin
place marking the zero coordinate on the x, y, or z axis.

original
a design, material, or subject to be copied or reproduced.

original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
(1) a company that sells goods to another company for use as components in their own equipment or for resale to end user; (2) a firm that licenses other companies to sell their products.

orthochromatic (film)
(1) photographic surface insensitive to red but senstive to ultraviolet blue, green and yellow rays; (2) electromagnetic wavelengths between 375 and 560 nanometers.

orthotropic
having three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry.

OSHA
acronym for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor or Occupational Safety and Health Act.

Ostwald system
a method of color notation based on a central gray scale surrounded by solid colors in horizontal and vertical rows.

ounce, avoirdupois
a unit of measure of weight; an avoirdupois unit is equal to 28.350 grams, abbreviation is oz.

ounce, fluid
refer to fluid ounce.

ounce, troy
a unit of weight for precious metal materials used by glass decorators, equal to 31.1 gm. or 1.097 oz. avoirdupois.

outdoor board (ODB)
a weatherproof board or paper used for outdoor advertising signs and displays.

outdoor durability (exterior exposure resistance)
the ability of a printed product to resist change during exposure to outdoor environmental influences; also refer to weatherability.

outgas
the characteristic of a solid or liquid to vaporize under heat.

outgassing
the release of vapors from polycarbonate sheet, resulting in bubbles forming between the sheet surface and applied vinyl film or ink film.

outline halftone
a photograph shot as a halftone with an outline mask to eliminate the background.

outline positive
a film positive with all areas except the desired subject having all detail eliminated, usually by opaquing the undesired portions on the negative, produces a stencil that does not print areas beyond the outline.

outlining
(1) a photographic technique of converting solid letters to outline letters; (2) scribing or drawing the shape of an object as in tracing with a thin line.

out-of-register
refer to misregistration.

overcure
undesirable condition where an ink or coating is overexposed to the curing process.

oven dry
a condition when paper has been dried in an oven at 105 plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade, until its weight has become constant within 0.1 percent.

overexposure
the subjection of photosensitive material to light source for a longer period than is necessary to accomplish the desired result.

overfiring
heating to a temperature that causes deformation, bending, or discoloration.

overglaze
complex compound of lead borosilicates and alkali borosilicates that is applied over previously fired glaze and then refired.

overglaze enamel
screen printing ink applied to ceramic or glassware as a finish to impart high gloss or color change.

overlaminate
a protective clear film that extends an image’s outdoor life and enhances its visual quality.

overlap
to make shapes to lap one color over another to ensure that subsequently printed colors will appear in register.

overlap lock
a display lock for constructions that require placement of lock within the display rather than at its edge.

overlay
top layer graphical interface of a membrane switch.

overlay of colors
the printing of a color on top of a preceding color.

overprinting
copy or graphic printed directly over an area that already has been printed.

overprint varnish
a clear, screen printable compound printed as a protective coating over a design.

overrun
copies of printed material that exceed the number ordered by the customer.

oversampling
scanning at more than an optimum sampling rate. See also subsampling.

overshoot
the number of degrees that a process involving heat exceeds the set-point when raising to the set point temperature.

oversize
substrate made larger to allow for trimming to ordered size.

over-travel
the additional movement of a rubber key pad or metal dome after making contact with the circuit.

oxidation
the effect produced by contact with oxygen, either in the atmosphere or introduced in more concentrated form, such as drying in some screen printing inks or deterioration of photographic developers in open trays.

oxide colors
inorganic or mineral base pigments used in porcelain and vitreous glass enamel colors.

oxidize
to combine with oxygen.

oxidizer
a chemical that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, thereby without the aid of an external ignition source causing fire either of itself or through the release of gases.

oxidizing agent
material that causes oxidation of an atom or ion and is reduced in the process; (oxygen is a common oxidixing agent).

oxidizing atmosphere
(1) sufficient oxygen content in a lehr to produce or support combustion; (2) air volume containing oxygen sufficient to promote drying of wet ink applications by oxidation; (3) an environment with an over supply of oxygen.

oxidizing ink
screen printing ink that changes from wet to dry state on contact with atmospheric oxygen.

oxy
oxidizer, any substance used to unite with oxygen, or which causes another to oxidize.

oxygen inhibition
the effect of oxygen to terminate or slow a polymerization reaction by deactivating radicals.

oz
abbreviation for ounce.

Ozalid
a tradename describing a method of copying page proofs from paper or film.

ozone
gaseous form of oxygen (O3) containing three atoms to the molecule generated by electric spark or a high-voltage discharge across a stream of air, causing oxidation of metals and other materials.

P
unit symbol in the metric system for peta.
p
unit symbol in the metric system for pico; abbreviation for pica.

Pa
unit symbol in the metric system for pascal.

packaging
the process of physically locating, connecting and protecting circuits, devices or components.

pack-up
a built-up surface beneath the screen, used to ensure good contact between the stencil and the screen during adhesion.

pad
an object made of silicone rubber that is used to transfer ink from an engraved plate to the substrate.

padding
the layers of felt, waterproof plastic, and black gray cloth applied to the surface of the printing table onto which adhesive can be coated to hold the textile substrate in position for screen printing.

pad transfer printing
method of transferring images from a photoengraved plate, made of steel or plastic, to a round, irregular, or flat surface with a silicone rubber pad.

page layout
the process and software that prepares artwork, text and other elements to be collected and prepared for printing within a specific area.

pagination
the assembly of printed matter into a page format.

paint mill
refer to ball mill.

palette
a finite set of distinct colors that can be displayed by a video, printing, or computer system.

palette knife
a small, flexible blade with handle used for mixing small batches of ink or color on a slab; spatula.

pallet
a low, sturdy portable platform on which materials may be placed for handling in quantity.

PAN
acroynm for polyacrylonitrile.

panchromatic
an emulsion or film that is sensitive to the light of all visible colors.

panel
(1) a section of the crown of a cap. (2) division of a job based on a device’s production area. Also called a tile.

panel program
a service where the manufacturer provides apparel parts to be decorated and returned for assembly.

pantograph
a device used to reduce or enlarge images proportionately.

Pantone system
a patented printing ink color matching system involving a range of stock colors with which, by intermixing in prescribed combination and amounts, an ink mixer can obtain a wide range of tints, tones, shadings, and intermediate hues. (Trademark of Pantone Inc.).

paper
a sheet of fibers (wood) manufactured on a fine wire from a water suspension.

paperboard
one of the two broad subdivisions of paper that is generally 12 points (0.3 mm/0.012 inch) or more in thickness.

paper conditioning
to bring paper temperature and moisture content into equilibrium with the atmospheric conditions of the pressroom.

paper equilibrium tester
an instrument used to indicate maximum changes likely in size or shape of stacked, wrapped paper, once the wrapping has been removed.

paper stencil
a screen printing stencil made of thin paper that is adhered to the mesh.

paper size, International
common paper sizes in Europe and Japan — A3 297 x 420 mm (11.7 x 16.5 in), A4 210 x 297 mm (8.3 x 11.7 in), A5 148 x 210 (5.8 x 8.3 in), B4 250 x 353 mm (10.1 x 14.3 in), B5 176 x 250 (7.2 x 10.1 in), B6 125 x 176 mm (5.0 x 7.2 in).

paper thermometer
a strip of heat sensitive paper that indicates achieved temperature; also refer to temperature tapes.

parallax
the difference between the field-of-view seen through the viewfinder and that recorded on the film.

parallelogram easel
an easel used in the construction of three-dimensional displays that requires assembly with parallel sides.

parallel-receding press
a screen printing press where the top frame assembly rises up and back or in some models, up and sideways simultaneously, while remaining parallel or horizontal.

parameter
controllable variables that describe the conditions of a process.

para red
an organic red pigment used in ink manufacturing.

parchment
(1) historically, a sheet made from the skins of goats; (2) an artificial paper made to resemble original; refer to vegetable parchment or vellum.

Pareto chart
a combination histrogram/cumulative line chart that helps identify causes that have the greatest impact on a problem.

parian ware
a soft porcelain composed of one part china clay and two parts feldspar, used for making statuettes.

parison
a hollow moltent plastic tube from which an object is blow molded.

parity
a set of binary digits where the total numbers of digits in each expression is deliberately kept odd or even by the addition of an extra digit whenever necessary.

particle
solid or liquid matter generally between 0.001 mircron and 1000 mircrons in size.

particulate
smallest unit; a substance that consists of a minute particle of solid or liquid matter, usually suspended in air.

parting agent
refer to release agent.

particles per million (ppm)
volume of vapor or gasses in the air.

parylene
a linear, highly crystalline polymer that is deposited from the vapor phase by a process similar to vacuum metalization, used as a conformal coating for silicone rubber keypads and electronic assemblies.

pascal (Pa)
a basic unit of pressure equal to the pressure resulting from a force of one Newton acting uniformly over an area of one square meter (N/m2).

passive component
a component that cannot control voltage or current to produce gain or switching activity.

passive substrate
an insulating substrate such as glass or ceramic material that provides physical support.

paste
a smooth textured semi-solid substance.

paste gold
gold particles in a suspension of heavy paste that can be thinned to desired consistency, used in glass decorating.

pastel
a soft light hue or tint.

paste up
a mechanical, composition of flat objects pasted on a backing.

pasting
to cause to adhere by applying paste.

patent
(1) a grant made by a government to an inventor giving sole rights to produce, use, and sell the invention for a certain period of time; (2) something protected by such a grant.

patent coated board
newsboard that has been coated to improve the surface.

pattern coated
refers to width and spacing arrangement of strips or designs of adhesive printed lengthwise, crosswise, or in predetermined designs on decal pressure sensitive stock during its manufacture.

pattern plating
the electroplating of specified areas, as in a printed circuit, by screen printing a plating resist over those areas not to be plated.

pattern
a plan, diagram, or model to be followed in producing an item.

PC
acroynm for polycarbonate.

PCB
acroynm for printed circuit board.

PCE
acroynm for pyrometric cone equivalent.

PDF (Portable Document Format)
An electronic document format from Adobe that allows the distribution of digital files across any platform that can display a document as originally designed and formatted without having the software application or fonts on the viewing computer.

PE
acroynm for polyethylene.

peacock blue
a fugitive, clean, green-shade blue pigment widely used in screen printing inks.

peak firing temperature
the maximum temperature at which firing of cermet or glass inks can be accomplished without deterioration or destruction of the imprint.

pearlescence
a “pearl-like” appearance produced by adding powdered titanium dioxide and mica as colorants to screen printing ink.

pebble mill
refer to ball mill.

pebble stitch
a garment with an irregular or rough surface texture.

pebbling
a finishing process that gives paper a grainy, ripple surface.

peel adhesion
the force required to remove a strip of overlay (usually 25.40 mm or one inch) from a material at a fixed rate (usually 304.8 mm or 12 inches/minute) at an angle of 90º from the surface.

peel, automatic
a device on larger automatic screen printing press that lifts the screen behind the moving squeegee.

peeling
a defect caused by detachment of a printed film from the substrate, or detachment of all or portions of a stencil film from the mesh of a printing screen.

PEL
acroynm for permissible exposure limit.

Pellon
trademarked product, refer to proofing squares.

pendulum motor
a display motor that has an oscillating or swinging motion.

penetrate
a wetting agent that increases ink penetration into a substrate.

penetration
the surface absorption of an applied ink or coating by a substrate with a porous surface.

pennant
a piece of plastic or cloth that is pointed at the bottom and is usually hung from its top.

percent dot area
the black area on film exposed and processed, expressed on a scale of 0-100. (A 90 percent dot area in a halftone positive would be equivalent to a 10 percent dot area in the corresponding negative.)

percent grayness
densitometric relative measure of achromatic density in a color as compared to the major filter density.

percent open area
the relationship between that part of a screen mesh that is blocked by threads, and that part that is open, or between threads; refer to aperture percentage.

percutaneous
the ability of a chemical to be absorbed through the skin.

perfect cut
an overlay that is prepared by cutting the film portion exactly against the edge of the trapping color.

perfecting press
an offset press that prints both sides of a sheet of paper simultaneously.

perfector
a printing press that prints both sides of the sheet with one pass through the machine.

perforated nickel screen
an electroformed rotary screen with good stability and flexibility characteristics.

perforating wheel
a manual or computer drive toothed round object that rotates freely to trace patterns that are brushed with dust or powder to transfer an outline, also called pounce pattern.

performance
the quality of a substance or bond to resist deterioration.

performance specification
a specification that states the desired operation or function of a product but does not specify the materials from which the product must be constructed.

perilla oil
a vegetable-origin drying oil with properties between tung and linseed oil.

peripheral
any of a number of hardware devices that extend or enhance the performance of the computer and are not part of the CPU, though some are mounted inside the case of the computer.

permanence
the quality of a substance or bond to resist deterioration.

permenant adhesive
a pressure sensitive adhesive that once applied becomes extremely difficult to remove without leaving a residue on the surface where the decal has been applied.

permanent ink
ink that resists fading or change of color when exposed to light and air.

permanent paper
a paper that resists the effects of aging, usually acid-free, used for archival or artistic (serigraph) prints.

permanent violet
a light resistant, tungstated or molybdated methyl violet pigment used in screen printing inks; carbazole violet.

per mill
per thousand.

permissible exposure limit (PEL)
concentration in air that has been declared safe to breathe by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

permittivity
the ratio of electric flux density produced by an electric field in a medium to that produced in a vacuum by the same field; also refer to dielectric constant.

persian orange
a clean, brilliant, transparent flaked orange ink pigment.

PET
acroynm for polyeylene terephthalate.

peta
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the fifteenth power (1015) or 1 000 000 000 000 000.0. Its symbol is P.

PETG
acroynm for polyeylene terephthalate cyclohexanedimethanol.

petroleum naphtha
weakest hydrocarbon solvent with KB value of 20.

PF
acroynm for phenolic.

PFP fabric
“prepared to print” fabric that has been pre-scoured and heat-set to make it suitable for printing.

pH (pH value)
a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 1 to 14. (A substance with a pH value of 7 is neutral; acids have pH values below 7; alkalis have pH values above 7.).

phase
a time-based relationship between a periodic function and a reference. (In electricity, it is expressed in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms.)

phase change printer
an ink jet printer where a solid ink is heated and liquefied for disbursement.

phenolic (PF)
an opaque thermoset plastic produced by the condensation of an aromatic alcohol with an aldehyde, particulatly of phenol with formaldehyde, resistant to solvent and water, non-recyclable, permenant shape, cannot be reformed.

phloxine (magenta)
a fugitive organic dyestuff used to produce brilliant red color; a bluish red pigment used in process color screen printing inks; also refer to eosin.

phosphate glass
a type of glass where the glass former is phosphorous pentoxide instead of silicone.

phosphor
material that emits light when irradiated by cathode ray or when placed in an electrical field.

phosphorescence
(1) a property of a certain class of films or coatings which utilizes the effect of light on chemical elements (phosphors) within the structure of the product to provide a visible color in the absence of a normal light source; (2) the luminous appearance of objects having this property.

photocell
a device that converts the energy in a light ray into electrical energy; also referred to as photoelectric cell.

photochemical oxidant
air pollutant formed by the action of sunlight on oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons that contribute to the formation of smog.

photochemistry
the study of chemical actions influenced by the action of light.

photochromatic ink
ink that changes color or looses color when exposed to a UV light source and returns to its original color when removed from the presence of UV light.

photoconductive
a material that carries electricity in the light and serves as an electrical insulator in the dark.

photoconductor
an insulator that conducts electricity in the light and serves as an electrical insulator in the dark.

photodegradation
the chemical breakdown of a substance caused by exposure to light.

photoengraving
a process of reproducing graphic material by photochemical transference of the image onto a sensitized plate and developing in etched relief.

photofabrication
refer to chemical milling, as required for pad printing.

photoflood light
electric incandescent filament lamp that provides a high intensity light source on relatively low current consumption.

photographic filter
designed to permit passage of specific colors through the lens to the film; manufactured of glass or gelatin in a various colors for use in front of the camera lens to produce pre-determined effects of colors on the film.

photographic sponge
a very fine textured, soft synthetic foam composition suitable for removing excess water from freshly processed camera film without scratching the emulsion.

photography
the process or technique of rendering optical images on photosensitive materials.

photogravure
a printing process where the image is etched into a plate cylinder; also referred to as gravure.

photoinitiator
a substance that absorbs light and becomes energized into forming free radicals and promotes polymerization of reactive monomers and oligomers.

photo mask
(1) a manually produced opaque design on masking film for preventing exposure of predetermined areas of photographic film or stencil material; (2) a photographically produced duplicate of a halftone negative or positive with very thin density, designed to add slight density to the halftone film from which it was made to reduce future exposure effects in controlling color density in the final printing.

photo multipler tube (PMT)
a single image reciever in a drum scanner; yields better shadow detail.

photomechanical transfer (PMT)
(1) a diffusion process whereby positive, reversal, or negative print can be made without an intermediate negative process step, also refer to diffusion transfer; (2) a trademark of the Eastman Kodak Company.

photometer
instrument used for measuring luminous intensity, luminous flux, illumination or intensity.

photomicrography
the process of photographing minute objects magnified through a microscope.

photo opaque
refer to opaque.

photopolymer
a plastic that changes upon exposure to light.

photopolymer emulsion
a presensitized emulsion where a photoreactive salt is attached to the polyvinyl resin during manufacturing, requires no additional sensitizer; also known as SBQ-photopolymer emulsion.

photoreactive resin
a natural or man-made resin or polymer that chemically reacts with itself or with other polymers under the influence of light.

photoscreen
a combination term used to indicate photographic screen printing stencils or the film or direct emulsions from which the stencils are made.

photoscreen stencil
any screen printing stencil made by photomechanical processes.

photosensitive resist
printable solution that is not affected by etching chemical but which is designed to be affected by exposure to actinic light applied through a mask to a predetermined pattern and later to the chromium tanning process to stabilize the protected portions of the resist film.

photosensitizer
a chemical agent that is affected or changed by light or other radiant energy; a substance that absorbs light and passes its energy to another substance which then reacts.

photostencil
any light sensitive system that utilizes original or photo-generated artwork to produce a stencil.

photoresist
a light sensitive coating that is applied to a metal surface.

phototype
type set by photographic means.

phototypesetting
act of preparing type material by photographic means to provide a positive film with the type matter in predetermined arrangement to form a line or lines.

Photo YCC
a color standard established by Eastman Kodak that is used to define color space.

phthalocyanine blue (cyan)
blue green organic pigment used in process color printing ink, characterized by excellent light fastness and resistance to solvent, acid, and alkali, resistant to bleed, good transparency.

phthalocyanine green
green organic pigment with excellent lightfastness and resistant to acid and alkali, bleed resistant, good transparency.

PI
acroynm for polymide.

pi
(1) a mathematicl symbol representing the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter, the numerical value of which is 3.14159265+ or 3.14; (2) foundry type mixed and jubbled in an unusable condition.

PIA
acroynm for Printing Industries of America.

pica
printer’s unit of linear measurement used for measuring type lines and artwork; equal to 12 points or 1/6 of an inch.

pick
paper fiber or coating lifting from the surface of a sheet during the printing process.

pickup
the adhesion of ink from the first color printed to the underside of the screen for the second or succeeding color.

pico
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative twelfth power (10-12) or 0.000 000 000 001; symbol is p.

pictograph a pictorial respesentation used with or instead of text.

PID
abbreviation for proportional, integral, derivative; a three-mode control where the controller has time proportioning (auto reset) and derivative action.

piezo-electric
ink jet technology that uses a mechanical electric charge instead of heat to drive microdroplets through a nozzle.

piezoresistance
resistance that changes with stress.

pigment
(1) a substance used as a colorant; a finely divided solid, organic or inorganic coloring material insoluble in the medium into which it is added; (2) the color substance in an ink that absorbs and reflects light.

pigment dye
textile dye formulated from appropriate vehicles and pigments of mineral or synthetic origin.

pigment emulsion
emulsion type screen printing ink that contains pigments for coloring effects mixed with emulsified vehicle.

pigment paper
refer to carbon tissue.

pigment volume
the percentage by volume of a pigment in the nonvolatile portion of an ink, calculated from bulking value and other data.

pile feeder
an automatic sheet feeding mechanism.

piling
the tendency of a textile fabric to mat into ball-like “pills” that cling to the surface of the fabric.

pill
a tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric.

pimple
any small defect such as a protrusion on the surface of a plastic.

pincushion distortion
an image that compressed toward the center with distortion most noticeable at the center of horizonal or vertical edges.

pin feed
refer to feed slots.

pinhole
(1) imperfection in the form of tiny transparent dots that appear in printing screens or in process films after development; (2) print imperfection caused by a combination of surface tension of ink and low receptivity of the substrate, resulting in very small separations of the ink after printing and before drying; (3) small hole in a decoration extending through the color to the substrate.

pinpoint light source
refer to point light source.

pin registration
a system of registering two or more sheets very accurately by means of punched holes placed over prespaced pins located outside the design area, results in very accurate alignment of the sheets.

pin scratch
a pattern or design formed by scratching lines through the raw glaze or decoration with a sharp point.

pinout
a schematic that describes the circuit output requirements for an electronic device.

pique
a knit fabric with a waffle-like appearance.

pit
a small depression or defect on the print surface, similar to a dimple.

pitch (fine pitch)
a solid or semi-solid asphaltic substance used in some inks to add flow or length.

pixel
(1) the smallest tonal element in a digital imaging or display system; (2) a tiny picture element that contains red, green, and blue information for color rendering on a monitor or scanner.

pixel depth
the number of bits of tonal range capability assigned to the pixels in an image.
(Momochrome 1 bit deep; grayscale 8 bits deep; RGB 24 bits deep; CMYK 32 bits deep).

pixel dropping/skipping
sub sampling to reduce the number of pixels in an image by dropping every nth pixel from the scan.

pixel replication
creating more pixels than are actually scanned by replicating every nth pixel to create the nth +1 pixel.

pixelization
graininess in an image when the pixels are too large.

pixels per inch (ppi)
a measure of the density of scanned information in an image.

PL
acroynm for polyolefin liner.

plain weave
a pattern of weave whereby the warp and filling thread (weft) cross alternatively over one and under one. (Plain weave mesh is the least pliable but most stable).

planimeter
a device that uses a microscope, television camera and receiver, and a small computer to visually and mathmatically evaluate a dot area.

planishing
method whereby heat and pressure are applied to a film, resulting in a surface texture.

planography
a printing process where the image and non-image areas lie in the same plane of the plate, such as offset printing.

plasma display
a display screen that has a gas contained between two panels where the x and y axis dots are electrically charged causing them to glow.

plasma treatment
an electrically neutral highly ionized gas made of ions, electrons, and neutral particles used to treat polyolefin plastic prior to printing.

plastic
(1) a synthetic organic polymeric material, solid in its final form, that is either a homogenous polymer or resin combined with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, stabilizers and/or other additives; (2) any of various complex organic compounds produced by polymerization, capable of being molded, extruded, or cast into various shapes and films, or drawn into filaments for fabrics.

plastic, engineering grade
plastic with properties suitable for engineered product requiring up to 125ºC (257ºF).

plastic, high performance
a plastic suitable for product designs requiring stability above 175ºC (347ºF).

plastic deformation
a forced change in the dimensions of an object that does not return to the original, when the applied force is removed.

plastic fluids
fluids where flow does not occur until a critical shear stress (yield stress) is exceeded.

plasticity
the property of a material that allows it to be repeatedly deformed without rupture, when acted upon by a force sufficient to cause deformation, and allows it to retain its shape after the applied force has been removed.

plasticize
to soften a material and make it plastic or moldable either by means of a plasticizer or the application of heat.

plasticizer
chemical agent added to a plastic composition to make it pliable, softer, and more flexible.

plastic viscosity
refer to viscosity.

plastisol
a dispersion of finely divided resin in a plasticizer or series of plasticizers, usually 100% solids with no volatiles. (If the mixture contains volitiles is is known as an organosol).

plastisol fusion rate
the curing time required by a plastisol deposit with the application of a specific temperature elevation.

plastometer
an instrument for determining the flow characteristics of a thermoplastic, under specified conditions.

plate
(1) in screen printing, indicates the printing screen; (2) in other printing methods, the material on which the desired copy or design has been etched, molded, or transferred.

platesetter
a device that uses laser light or themal imaging to expose a printing plate at high dpi resolution (1200 dpi or higher).

plated-through holes
a plating technique in electronic circuitry where the holes drilled in the substrate for attaching wire lead components are plated with metal for the entire depth of the holes as they extend through the thickness of the substrate.

plate glass
obsolete term refer to float glass.

plate maker (plate printer)
an illuminated vacuum table for exposing photosensitive material.

platen
(1) the flat plate of a printing unit of a printing press that serves to hold the substrate in position during printing or finishing; (2) a fixture on a T-shirt printing machine or device that supports the item to be printed; (3) base or heating element of a heat transfer press.

platen dryer
a single panel flash cure unit generally used for wet-on wet garment printing.

platform
refers to the particular proprietary computer hardware design. This can be Intel, Windows, Macintosh, etc.

platform easel
an easel that provides a platform on which merchandise can be displayed.

platform lock
a lock that attaches a display platform to its base.

plating resist
a screen printing compound, when applied to conducting elements in a printed circuit, prevents subsequent plating of those portions with metal.

Plexiglas
a light, transparent, weather resistant thermoplastic; a trade name for acrylic plastic sheet, which through long usage, is incorrectly regarded by many as a generic term.

pliability
refer to flexibility.

plotter
(1) a mechanical drawing device that produces images by pen or electrostatic process; (2) an output device for recording an image in raster fashion on a photographic emulsion or print image carrier; (3) a device that interprets information sent from a computer and moves a tool head to a series of coordinates based on the devices x and y axis coordinates.

plugging shadows
destruction of, or loss of, detail in the shadow areas of a halftone film or print.

ply
a designation of thickness for cardboard and other blanks indicated by the number of plies or layers used in the laminate. (Plies are converted into points with a point equal to 1/1,000 inch).

PMA
abbreviation for a pigment that has been precipitated with phosphomolybdic acid to give it permanence and insolubility.

PMMA
acroynm for polymethyl methacrylate; acrylic plastic.

PMS
acronym for Pantone Matching System, a registered trademark of Pantone, Inc.; a color matching system for choosing and matching specific spot and process colors.

PMT.
(1) acronym for photomechanical transfer, a trademark of the Eastman Kodak Company; (2) acronym for photo multiplier tube.

pneumatic screen printing machine
a screen printing machine, semi-automatic or automatic that is powered by compressed air rather than by an electric motor or other mechanical power source.

pneumatic tensioning system
a compressed air-actuated stretching device used for tensioning mesh before it is attached to the frame.

PO
acroynm for polyolefin.

POC
acroynm for point of contact.

pocket connector
a pocket for connecting two display parts to each other.

pocket hinged-back
a pocket made out of a display back.

pocking
dimpling on the surface of a print.

point
(1) a standard unit of measure in printing where 72 points equal one inch; one point equals 1/1000 inch; (2) a measure of cardboard thickness (50 point board is specified .050 and is 5/100 inch or 50/1,000 inch thick).

point light source
a light source that has a single point or filament.

point of purchase/point of sale
the location at which a product is sold such as the store or retail counter.

point source
any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including, but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock or vessel, from which pollutants are or may be discharged.

poise
a unit for measuring viscosity, equal to one dyne per second per square centimeter; one gm/cm/sec.

Poisson’s ratio
absolute value of the ratio of transverse strain to axial strain resulting from a uniformly applied axial stress below the proportional limit of the material.

polar adhesion
adhesion to a surface that has polarity such as wood, paper and cloth.

polar solvent
a solvent with oxygen in their molecules such as water, alcohol, ketone, esters, or other solvent having a high dielectric content.

polishing
the name of a defect that occurs in matte ink, when the gloss of a print can be increased by rubbing.

pollution
undesirable foreign materials, usually waste, in the air, water or on the land.

polyacrylonitrile (PAN)
a synthetic fiber used as a base material or precursor in the manufacture of certain carbon fibers.

polyamide
alternate spelling for polyimide.

polybasic acid
maleic, succinic, and phthalic acid having two or more carboxyl groups per molecule.

polycarbonate (PC)
a thermoplastic material derived from the reaction of aromatic dihydroxy compounds with carbonic acid with high impact strength, low water absorption, heat and moisture resistant, and good electrical and optical properties.

polychloroprene
chemical name for neoprene.

polychrome
a multi-colored image or print.

polydomes
spherically formed element in polyester circuit material to provide tactile response in electronic switches.

polyester (UP)
a thermosetting plastic derived from unsaturated ester polymer dissolved in a monomer such as styrene used in the production of film and fiber, strong, extremely tough, adversely affected by UV light and chlorinated solvents, but resistance to most other solvents, acids, and salts.

polyester dome
refer to polydome.

polyethylene (PE)
a thermoplastic produced by the direct polymerization of ethylene at high temperatures and pressures; process variations and the lowering of temperature and pressure create high, medium, and low density materials.

polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
a thermoplastic formed by reaction of either purified terephthalic acid or dimethyl terephthalate with ethylene glycol, used for synthetic fiber and film, blow molded, and thermoformed parts.

polyhydric alcohol
alcohols such as glycol and glycerol containing more than one C-OH group per molecule.

polyimide (PI)
a thermoset or thermoplastic formed by the reaction of a dibasic acid with a diamine to form a salt and then a polymeric amide; polyamide resins are nylons.(Sometimes spelled polyamide).

polymer
a long chain molecular structure compound formed by a reaction between monomers and or oligimers, having functional groups that permit their combination to proceed to high molecular weights under suitable conditions by polymerization or polycondensation. (Polymers can be plastic, elastomers, liquids, or gums).

polymerization
a chemical reaction initiated by a catalyst, heat, light, or water causing monomers and/or oligimers to linked together to form a polymer.

polyolefin (PO)
a thermoplastic (polyethylene or polypropylene) that is based on polymers of olefin.

polypropylene (PP)
a thermoplastic material similar to polyethylene with a higer molecular weight resulting from polymerization of propylene gas; the lightest of the thermoplastics.

polystyrene (PS)
a thermoplastic material derived from the polymerization of styrene that is clear and exhibits high stiffness, good dimensional stability, low specific gravity and excellent electrical properties.

polyvinyl acetate (PVAc)
a vinyl polymer or copolymer mainly used in the manufacturing of adhesives and emulsions.

polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH)
a thermoplastic that is produced from full or partial hydrolysis of vinyl ester such as vinyl acetate resulting in the replacement of some or all of the acetyl groups with hydroxyl groups.

polyvinyl alcohol emulsion
a solution made by dissolving specific amounts of a fine white synthetic powder known as polyvinyl alcohol and ammonium or potassium bichromate in specific volumes of water.

polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
also known as vinyl, a thermoplastic resin used in both solution and dispersion coating systems and is polymerized from vinyl chloride monomer by free radical techniques, exceedingly versatile, used for products from thin films to complex molded parts.

polyvinyl fluoride (PVF)
a polymer of vinyl fluoride (fluoroethylene), a monomer structurally similar to ethylene with a high melting point, chemical inertness and resistance to ultraviolet light.

POM
acroynm for polyoxymethylene; acetal plastic.

POP/POS
acroynm for point of purchase or point of sale.

poplin
plain weave class of fabrics having fine cross ribs.

porcelain
a glazed or unglazed vitreous ceramic whiteware.

porcelain process
a method of producing glazed ware where a ceramic body and/or glaze are matured together in the same firing.

porcelain sign
a traditional type of metal sign utilizing porcelain enamal paints topped by a ceramic slip that is fired to create a durable glass like coating that is impervious to the environment.

porosity
the structure and density of a sheet; the ratio of the volume of the pores to the volume of the mass of a substrate.

porosity percentage
the percentage of the total volume of a material occupied by both open and closed pores.

porous surfaces (porosity of substrate)
surface of substrate with open pore construction as in paper that have the capability of slight absorption, thus offering a mechanical bond with ink applications.

portrait
a page format that has greater height than width; page layout in vertical format.

positionability
the condition of a pressure sensitive product imposed during manufacture that permits repositioning after application.

positive
film or vellum print where the light and dark areas appear as they do naturally, corresponding to the original copy.

positive temperature coefficient
an increase in resistance due to an increase in temperature.

post cure
(1) the continuation of a polymerization (curing) process within a UV ink or coating after exposure to UV radiation has been terminated; (2) a final or more complete resolving of organic materials after the initial curing process; (3) additional elevated temperature cure, usually without pressure to improve final properties and complete the cure.

post hardening
re-exposing a screen after it has been developed to fully harden the emulsion.

PostScript point
a slight revision to the point measurement system equal to 1/72 of an inch. (Most graphic software utilizes this defined value for a point).

poster
(1) a message presented to public view to promote a product, event, civic action, etc., usually depending more on illustration for attraction than copy; (2) a very large sales promotion message screen printed in conveniently handled sections, for pasting up on outdoor poster boards.

poster board
a specific weight of cardboard beginning with caliper 0.024 (24 point). (Standard sheeted sizes are 559 x 711 mm (22 x 28 inches) and 711 x 1118 mm (28 x 44 inches)).

posterization
(1) a special effect performed on a piece of art that compresses all of the tonal values into a smaller range of tones usually not more than four; (2) a special effect created by using a limited number of gray levels within an image, computer created by setting a defined number of gradiant steps in a bitmapped image.

poster paper
a name commonly used by printers for paper sheet material used in the printing of an outdoor advertising poster, usually wet-strengthened with opaque additives for minimum see-through when posted, rough on one side to facilitate pasting.

poster plates
a paper tissue stencil that is hand-cut and attached to the screen.

poster style art
refer to block color.

PostScript
a page description programming language created by Adobe. A device-independent industry standard for outputting documents and graphics.

PostScript point
a slight revision to the “Point” measurement unit. A Postscript point is exactly 1/72 of an inch. Most graphics software utilizes this refined value for a point.

post sensitizing
a technique of coating stretched mesh with unsensitized emulsion and permitting the coat(s) to dry, then wiping the sensitizing solution onto both surfaces with a cotton pad under safe light conditions with a sensitizer just prior to use.

potassium bichromate
orange red crystals sometimes used in the preparation of solutions for sensitizing carbon tissue, screen printing films, and coatings for screen printing stencils. (Bichromates are considered an environmental and health hazard and are no longer used in the industry).

pot life
(1) the length of time that a chemical composition can be stored before it begins to deteriorate or is no longer useful; (2) time during which a liquid resin remains workable as a liquid after catalyst, curing agent, and/or promoter is addded.

pound
a unit of weight equal to 16 ounces avoirdupois or 453.592 grams.

pound per square foot (psf)
a unit of pressure equal to the pressure resulting from a force of one pound applied uniformly over an area of one square foot.

pounds per square inch (psi)
a measurement of pressure exerted per unit area.

power factor
cosine of the angle between the voltage applied and the current resulting.

powdered adhesive
a thermoplastic bonding agent primarily used to aid a plastisol transfer to adhere more efficiently to nylon or polyester substates.

PP
acroynm for polypropylene.

PPD
refers to PostScript Page Description, a small file used to describe a particular printer’s characteristics and capabilities to a graphics or word-processing software.

PPE
acroynm for personal protective equipment.

ppi
acroynm for pixels per inch.

ppm
acroynm for particles per million.

pre-bowing
the application of force to the sides of a static frame prior to gluing tensioned mesh to the frame.

prebreaking
the breaking of scores before shipping a display.

precision
state of being precise as to meaning, exactness, accuracy.

precision printing
refer to close tolerance printing.

pre-flight
a process of checking a job for possible problems before the job is sent for final output.

preheat cycle
to heat before hand using a time and temperature relationship.

preheat zone
that portion of a lehr where all organic compounds are burned off before entering the firing zone.

premasking
the application of protective paper or tape to the surface of a substrate prior to printing.

prep
the process of preparing screen mesh to receive a photographic stencil; a make ready procedure prior to use.

pre-pack
a display designed to be packed with merchandise by the advertiser and shipped as a unit.

prepreg
a thermosetting plastic, such as polymide, reinforced with glass cloth for use as a circuit board laminate, especially for multilayer boards.

pre-press
all preparatory operations performed before the actual printing operation.

preprinting
screen printing a distortion pattern or design onto a plastic sheet that will be heat or vacuum formed, where during forming, the distortion is transformed into a correct image; refer to distortion copy.

pre-scouring
washing of fabric to remove residual spinning oils and waxes that could interfere with dye acceptance.

prescreened film
a sensitized film for making halftone positives and halftone negatives, where the halftone effect or dot formation is incorporated in the sensitized emulsion of film and produces a dot pattern automatically when film is exposed to object or copy.

presensitized film
screen printing stencil film made for making photographic stencils that has been sensitized before shipping.

prespacing
the application of a series of die cut or kiss cut patterns in a predetermined relationship onto an application paper in order that all marking components or designs may be applied to the substrate at one time.

press check
an event where test sheets are examined and approved before production run is authorized.

press proof
refer to proof.

press run
the total number of copies printed, refer to as an “edition” in fine art serigraph printing.

pressure contact frame
a frame for holding two or more sheets face-to- face, or face-to-back, in-contact while exposing.

pressure equalizer
a device that uses pneumatic pressure to equalize squeegee pressure along the blade.

pressure forming
a thermoforming process where pressure is used to press the sheet to be formed against the mold.

pressure head
that portion of a heat-release decorating machine that applies pressure to a heat-release decal, forcing it into contact with the ware.

pressure sensitive adhesive
(1) a tacky adhesive that is applied to a sheet material to enable the sheet to adhere to an unrelated surface by contact and light pressure without the use of water or solvent; (2) a material that has pressure sensitive adhesive applied either at the factory or in the screen printing plant; (3) a combination of a face material, pressure sensitive adhesive, and liner paper.

pressure sensitive pen
a tool that allows information to be entered in a computer with a stylus in a manner similar to writing or drawing.

pressure washer
a screen cleaning unit consisting of a device for multiplying tap water pressure through a hose and a spray-type nozzle under high pressure.

pressurized screen printing
a printing method or device that forces ink through a stencil image of a screen by vacuum.

pretreatment
preparing the screen mesh by degreasing and abrading before stencil application; also refer to prep.

pretreatment standards
(1) municipal limits requiring industry to treat effluents prior to their arrival at waste treatment plants; (2) in wastewater treatment, any process used to reduce pollutants before the process waste-water in introduced into a main sewer system or delivered to a treatment plant.

Preucil Ink Evaluation System
a color evaluation system where a reflection densitometer is used to measure a printed ink film through a Wratten #25, #58, #47 filter relative to substrate, then converts information to hue error and grayness parameters for plotting on color diagram.

prewetting
(1) a procedure used by outdoor advertising installers of soaking printed paper overnight prior to posting; (2) a procedure that is used to soak stacks of water slide decals in a tray prior to application.

primary colors
in printing inks, yellow, magenta, and cyan; for light, the primary spectral colors are red, green, and blue.

primary standard
a standard of reference units and physical constants maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) upon which all measurement units are based (US).

primer
refer to barrier coat.

principal axis
the axis of maximum and minimum normal stress.

print
the final form of the printed image; the act of printing.

print area
the area of a printing form that produces the image or the area printed on a substrate.

print base
the support on which the substrate is placed for printing; also refer to print table, platen.

print cloth
plain woven fabric, not napped, weighing not more than six ounces per square yard.

print contrast
the ratio of the difference in the density of a 75% (three-quarter) tone and a solid print to the density of the saturated solids on a press sheet.

print cylinder
the printing base on a cylinder press that is a vacuum cylinder of stainless steel or aluminum.

print head
a part of a screen printing press that consists of the screen carriage, the squeegee/flood bar assembly, and the mechanical controls and fixtures.

print quality
the properties of a print that meet or exceeds cutomer specifications.

print run
the total number of prints, plus overruns, produced.

print section
that portion of a web screen printing press located after the in-feed, where one or more print stations are located.

print shoulder
the vertical borderline between the printing, or open sections and the nonprinting or closed sections of the stencil.

print side
the side of a screen where the ink is and the squeegee is dragged across; also referred to as well side.

print stock
substrates to be printed.

print stroke
the movement of the squeegee across the printing screen forcing ink through the stencil, forming the imprint.

print table
see print base, platen.

printability
(1) capable of being printed; (2) describtion of the properties of all components in a printing process.

printed and fired circuit
refer to thick film circuit.

printed circuit
an electronic circuit produced by printing an electrically conductive pattern, wiring, or components on a supporting dielectric substrate that can be either rigid or flexible.

printed circuit laminate
material either fabric or paper based that is covered with a thin layer of copper foil and used in the photofabrication process to make circuit boards.

printer dot
the individual pixel in a halftone image.

printer, nonimpact
any device that reproduces an image without striking the substrate, such as ink jet, laser, and xerographic printing.

printer’s ream
a quantity of sheet material equal to 516 sheets.

printing down (British)
the process of exposing the photostencil to a light source.

printing frame
a specially constructed frame consisting of one opaque surface and one transparent or glass surface that can be brought together with each other by mechanical pressure or by vacuum.

printing ink
any fluid or viscous composition used to print, impress, or transfer an image onto a substrate.

printing lamp
an actinic light source used in illuminating or in exposing screen printing films and other sensitized materials.

printing paste
a formulation of screen printing ink used for ceramic and glass decoration.

printing press
a mechanical device to enable the application of ink to a substrate to reproduce a pattern or design.

printing process
any method used to reproduce written and pictorial matter in quantity.

printing screen
the assembly of frame, mesh, and stencil from which a screen print is produced.

printings
the number of colors on an outdoor poster, multiplied by the number of sheets upon which each color is printed.

procedures
the documented practices defining the who, what, and when of an operation.

process blue
refer to cyan.

process camera
a camera designed to accurately photograph line, solid, halftone, colored copy and other objects to be reproduced by means of a printing method; also called gallery camera, darkroom camera.

process capability
the total range of inherent variations in a stable process.

process colors (process inks)
inks of cyan, magenta, and yellow, semi-transparent specifically formulated for four color process screen printing. process control
a system using feedback to monitor and manage a certain procedure.

process ink
refer to process color.

process lens
a lens having a long focal length, corrected for flat copy and used in a process camera, or made with pantograph, divider and other such device.

process printing
the printing from a series of two or more halftone screens to produce intermediate colors and shades, usually in four color process – yellow, magenta, cyan, and black.

process red
see magenta.

process temperature
the temperature of the process medium, as recorded by a sensor.

process wastewater
any used water which results from or has had contact with the manufacturing process, or for which there is a reasonable possibility of contamination from raw material, intermediate product, final product, storage transportation, handling, processing or cleaning.

profile
a database or file of values that apply to an imager defining its color capability for other imagers in the same process.

profilometer
an instrument used for measuring the degree of surface roughness.

progressive proofs
a set of press proofs showing the printing sequence and the result after each additional color has been applied.

progressive shrinkage
refer to relaxation shrinkage.

projection
(1) a pattern or design enlarged or reduced by an optical system onto a second surface at a distance from the original design; (2) the method by which the original design is transferred to a distant surface by means of an optical system.

promotional quality
a garment that is lighter in weight and less expensive.

proof
a preliminary print made for inspection purposes to check details of the design using image carrier, substrate, and ink specified for the job; a prototype of the print job.

proofing square
a non woven material used as a test print substrate in garment printing.

proofreader marks
a series of symbols and abbreviations used by a proofreader to mark errors on copy and to indicate corrections to be made.

proportion scale
a circular sizing tool for determining the dimensions of a piece of art when it is to be enlarged or reduced.

proportional limit
the greatest stress a material can take without deviation from the linear proportionality of stress to strain; referred to as Hooke’s law.

propylene glycol
an alcohol used in the manufacture of coatings and inks.

pro rate
to divide, distribute, or asses proptionately.

protective coating
a coating that protects the substrate and the printing on it from abrasion, sunlight, chemicals, moisture, or any combination of exterior influences; also refer to overprint varnish.

protocol
the established method for performing an experiment or test.

protoype
a full sized example that serves as a model from which other identical items can be produced.

prototyping
method of constructing a one-of-a-kind membrane switch with little or no hard tooling.

protusion
an undesirable raised area on a surface.

proxy
a representative version or sample of a larger image.

proxy image
a low resolution image used in any software program to show the effects of change without performing transformations on high resoulution files.

prussian blue
a pigment used in ink manufacturing; refer to iron blue.

PS
acroynm for polystyrene.

PSA
acroynm for pressure sensitive adhesive.

PSA primer
preliminary coating applied to a surface to enable an adhesive system to bond to a substrate.

pseudoplastic
material where the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate, such as polymer solutions and emulsions, coating dispersions, paints, adhesives, varnishes and resins.

psf
acroynm for pounds per square foot.

psi
acroynm for pounds per square inch.

psid
pounds per square inch differential; a pressure difference between two points.

psig
pounds per square inch gage; pressure referenced to ambient air pressure.

psychrometer
a type of hygrometer, that uses the difference in readings between two themometers, one having a wet bulb ventilated to cause evaporation and the other having a dry bulb as a measure of atmospheric moisture.

PTA
an abbreviation used to describe a pigment that has been precipitated with phosphotungstic acid to give it permanance and insolubility.

PTF
acroynm for polymer thick film.

puckering
gathering of fabric due to its tension being less than that of the stitches.

puddle method
a method of developing stencils without complete immersion in the developer.

puff ink
an ink that when heated to a specific temperature for a definite period of time, achieves a characteristics of three-dimensionality by expansion.

pull
refer to printing stroke.

pull compensation
deliberate distortion digitized into the design to allow for thread pull that would otherwise cause a one centimeter stitch to shrink to point nine centimeters due to thread tension.

pulldown
refer to drawdown.

pulp
primary raw material from groundwood, semi-chemical wood, chemical wood (sulphite and sulphate) and cotton from which paper is made.

pulp type papers
those papers containing ground woods, sulfate and/or sulfate pulps exhibiting characteristics of high opacity and high strength.

pulsed xenon
a type of actinic illuminate (xenon gas) that provides a very constant output with a spectral composition resembling sunlight.

punching
changing a visual design into an electronic record to drive an automated embroidery machine.

purity of color
a color in relation to its composition of pure pigments that form the hue and its lack of inerts, fillers, bulking agents, and other additives.

push-in lock
a simple, sturdy lock consisting of a predetermined segment of the display stock so that it can be pushed into position to hold an assembly in position.

PVA
acroynm for polyvinyl acetate solution used in direct-emulsion stencils.

PVAc
acroynm for polyvinyl acetate; also sometimes stated as PVAC.

PVC
acroynm for polyvinyl chloride.

PVC plastisol
refer to plastisol.

PVC stock
plastic sheet materials made from polyvinyl chloride.

PVOH
acroynm for polyvinyl alcohol.

PWB
acroynm for printed wiring board.

pyramid shadow box
a shadow box for displays requiring a strong tilt back.

pyrocon
an instrument used for determining the temperature of the heating plate on a heat transfer machine.

pyrometer
a meter for registering heat, which may be calibrated in either Fahrenheit or Celsius scales.

pyrometric cones
small pyramid shapes of ceramic materials used to measure the heat in a kiln or lehr, designated by numbers as to temperature at which they will deform.

pyrophoric
a chemical substance or mixture that will ignite spontaneously in dry or moist air below 54.4ºC (130ºF).

pyrophosphate plated circuit boards
circuit boards having been plated in a media of copper potassium pyrophosphate.

pyroxylin
a plastic material of cellulose nitrate, used for coating paper and cloth.

QA
acroyn for quality assurance.
QC
acroynm for quality control.

QS9000
an automotive quality standards system used by supplier to the automobile industry.

qt
abbreviation for quart.

qty
abbreviation for quantity.

quad
the addition of space to fill a line of type using an en or em block.

quadracolor
a function of some color scanners where a set of four separations is produced on a single piece of film.

quality
a measure of the degree of perfection of all phases of a process.

quality assurance
a system of inspections, and/or tests instituted at various stages in a manufacturing or printing process to ensure that the end product will meet predetermined standards.

quality control
refer to quality assurance.

quality factor
a measure of the ratio of pixels per halftone screen ruling.

quantization
artifical forcing of like gray levels to the same gray levels as a result of limited tonal resolution in a scanner used in shadow portion of scanned image.

quart, Imperial
a unit of volume or capacity equal to 40 Imperial fluid ounces, 1/4 Imperial gallon, 69.35 cubic inches or 1.2 quarts, U.S.

quart, U.S
a unit of liquid volume or capacity equal to 32 fluid ounces, U.S., 1/4 gallon U.S. and 57.75 cubic inches.

quartertone
tones that lie between shadow and midtone and between highlight and midtone; tonal values in range 25% dot.

quartz
most common form of silica, an essential ingredient in glass and enamel batches.

quartz glass
a pure silica glass highly transparent to ultraviolet radiation.

quartz-halogen
refer to quarts iodine lamp.

quartz-iodine lamp
an improved tungsten bulb that has a tungsten filament surrounded by iodine and inert gases, enclosed in a quartz envelope; also referred to as quartz halogen.

quartz-tube
a UV lamp typically filled with mercury vapor, and made from quartz.

queue
the line of events scheduled to occur with a computer or peripheral.

quilted
jacket with two or more layers and padding filling.

quinacridone red/magenta
an organic pigment with outstanding lightfastness and other resistance properties.

quinizarine maroon
an organic pigment with good lightfastness, excellent resistance to acids and alkali, good bleed resistance, and good transparency.

quire
one twentieth of a ream of paper (24 or 25 sheets).

quoin
a steel wedge-shaped or expandable device used to lock up type or die elements in a chase.

quench
a method of cooling a substance suddenly, usually in water, oil, or air.

qwerty
a standard keyboard layout based on American standard typewritter.

R
acroynm for additive primary color red.
rack
a series of usually flat platforms of open construction stacked or hinged one over the other on which printed sheets may be placed for air drying at ambient temperature.

rack drying
the air drying of screen printed sheets in racks, usually at ambient temperatures, but can also be dried in a room where temperatures are elevated.

racking
the placing, manually, of screen printed sheets on racks for drying.

rad
(1) a unit of energy absorbed from ionizing radiation, equal to 100 ergs (10-5 joules) per gram of radiated material, also referred to as megarad; (2) abbreviation for radiation.

radiant energy
a form of energy consisting of the electromagnetic spectrum that travels at 299,792 kilometers (186,206 miles) through vacuum, reducing speed in denser media such as air and water.

radiant tube
a steel tube of alloy or ceramic composition where fuel is burned for supplying radiant heat to a lehr or kiln.

radiation
ultraviolet or infrared wavelengths of light and heat energy used for curing an ink film or exposing a photostencil.

radical
an extremely reactive chemical particle with an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron, also reffered to as free radical.

radio frequency welding
a method of joining thermoplastic using radio frequency field to apply the necessary heat.

radiometer
an instrument, usually self contained, for measuring UV energy inside of a curing unit.

radius
(1) a line segment joining the center of a circle with any point on its circumference; (2) a measure of the curve or range on which a printing screen travels in printing tapered objects; (3) measure of the curve on which artwork is distorted to fit a curved or tapered surface of a bottle or cylindrical object.

radius printing
the technique of screen printing on conical shapes, where the printing screen moves along the arc of a circle while the squeegee remains stationary.

rag content
paper made wholly or partially from cotton fibers thatmay be derived from reclaiming fabrics or virgin cotton. (Rag papers may contain from about 25% to 100% fibers).

rag paper
refer to rag content.

ragged
a type of composition set where lines of type do not start or end at the same position; lines of type centered in a column.

raglan
a type of sleeve sewn with seams slanting outward from the neck to underarm.

railroad bond
a heavy-duty signage board ranging in caliper from 0.457 to 0.610 mm. (018 to .024 inches).

rainlap
the various sheets of an outdoor poster are laid-out and printed so that when posted, the bottom edge of the top sheet will overlap the top edge of the bottom sheets.

raised printing
refer to thermography.

RAM
acroynm for random access memory.

ramp
a registration lug, protrusion, or cavity that is molded into a container or jar; refer to ACL lug.

random access memory (RAM)
the high speed portion of computer memory that is stored on special chips for use in current applications or procedures.

range
a measure of dispersion equal to the difference or interval between the smallest and the largest set of quantities.

rapid tensioning
a method of stretching mesh to optimum tension in one or two steps.

raster
the process of rendering an image or page, pixel by pixel, in a sweeping horizontal motion, one line after another.

raster image
an image that is defined as a collection of pixels arranged in a rectangular array.

raster image file format (RIFF)
a storage format used with gray scale images.

raster image processing (RIP)
a process using mathematical algorithums to enlarge and print an image.

rasterization
changing vector type image information to raster image information.

rasterized type
type that has rough or stair-stepped edges.

rattle
a sound made by paper that is shaken for an indication of stiffness or dryness.

raw materials
the components necessary to the manufacture of a product. (Basic items or materials in a chemical composition; basic items or materials used in constructing a mechanical device).

raw umber
an inorganic pigment with excellent fade resistance, excellent fade resistance, good resistance to acids and alkali, resists bleeding, poor gloss.

rayon
a synthetic textile fiber made from regenerated cellulose (wood pulp), cotton linters, or other vegetable matter.

r-chart
refer to trend chart.

RCRA
acronym for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (US).

reactive dilutent
monomer or mixture of monomers used to reduce the viscosity of a UV ink.

reactive dye
dye that works by forming a chemical bond between the fiber and the solution where heat is used to develop the proper shade, used to make fabric colorfast.

reactive material
a chemical substance or mixture that will actively polymerize, decompose, condense, or become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure, or temperature.

reactivity
the ability of a substance to change by combining with another substance or breaking down.

reactor
UV curable unit consisting of UV lamps, reflectors, cooling system, and shielding.

read color
markings that are created in an ink that can be read by an ORC device.

ream
a quantity of 500 sheets of paper, formerly 480 sheets or sometimes 516 sheets (printer’s ream).

ream marker
a small piece of paper inserted in a quantity of sheets to mark off reams.

rear adhesive
the mounting adhesive for a membrane switch normally 0.002 to 0.005 thick.

receding color
a color that appears to move away or create the illusion of distance such as blue, green, and violet.

receptivity
able to receive.

receiver sheet
the piece of a two part diffusion transfer material that is not sensitive to light.

reciprocity effect
the extent to which time/light intensity ratios affect exposure.

reciprocity law
photographic rule stating that exposure is a function of the product of both exposure time and light intensity, not of either variable alone.

reclaimed screen
printing screen reconditioned for use by removal of excess ink and stencil from the mesh.

reclaiming
(1) the process of removing both ink and stencil from the screen mesh after a printing; (2) the process of cleaning used solvent to obtain a reusable product.

reclaiming fixer
refer to silver recovery.

reclaiming solution
a chemical used to remove a screen printing film or emulsion from screen mesh to make the mesh useful again.

recommended tension
the optimum tightness of a screen mesh as determined by the mesh manufacturer.

recording density
the number of bits of data recorded per linear inch on magnetic media.

recovery
in stretched materials, the difference between ultimate elongation and dead stretch; a return to normal condition.

recto
the right-hand page of a book, cover, or sheet; the odd numbered pages.

recycle
to restore waste or spent material to a reusable condition.

red
one of the three additive primary colors of light.

red iron oxide
an inorganic pigment with excellent fade resistance, good hiding ability, good resistance to acid and alkali, resists bleeding, poor gloss.

red label
the color and type of label required by the Department of Transportation (DOT) on shipment of flammable materials (US).

red lake C
a warm, bright red pigment used in printing inks.

red lead
an orange red oxide of lead similar to orange mineral, formally used in printing ink.

red 28
an organic pigment with fair transparency, good bleed resistance, fair to good lightfastness, and poor resistance to acid and alkali.

reducer
a solvent or other additive used for lowering the viscosity and tack of an ink formulation.

reducing atmosphere
a furnance environment that tends to remove oxygen from a substance or material placed in a lehr or kiln.

reducing flame
a rich flame or fire resulting from a mixture containing too much fuel or too little air for proper combustion.

reduction
(1) the amount of, or the act of, thinning an ink with a compatible solvent; (2) a decreased size or area of an original copy, made photographically in a camera, or manually by pantograph, or dividers.

reference colors
familiar colors, such as blue sky, green grass, and human skin tone, often referred to when evaluating process color reproduction.

reference edge
the area on a data medium used to establish specifications or measurements in or on the data carrier.

reference state
the position of a fabric in relaxed condition after five washings.

reflectance
the ratio between the amount of light reflected from a given tone area and the amount of light reflected from a white area.

reflectance, specular
mirror-like reflectance. The magnitude of the specular reflectance on glossy materials depends on the angle and on the scattering of the light by an uneven surface.

reflectance, total
reflectance of radiant flux reflected at all angles from the surface, thus including both diffuse and specular reflectances.

reflection
the direction change of a ray of light when it falls on a surface and is thrown back into the medium from which it approched.

reflection densitometer
an instrument that measures the amount of incident light received from the surface of a substrate; also refer to densitometer, reflection.

reflection diffused
parallel incident rays that are reflected at various angles from a rough surface.

replection specular
parallel incident rays that are reflected at a constant angle from a smooth surface.

reflective art
artwork either line or halftone that is rendered on an opaque surface.

reflective copy
illustrative copy that is viewed by light reflected from its surface.

reflective ink
ink containing microscopic glass spheres that have the capability of returning light rays to the observer.

reflective sheeting
sheet material with one face treated with a substance, usually microscopic glass spheres that return light rays striking it.

reflectivity
the capacity of a surface to reflect light rays.

reflex blue
a strong organic blue pigment with the highest tinctorial strength of any blue pigment; also referred to as alkali blue.

reflex copy
the exposure of a photosensitive film by passing light through the back of the film, then through a positive or negative, and reflecting the light back from the support surface.

reflex paper
a light sensitive material for contacting same size reproductions.

refractive index
the deviation of light as it passes through a given substance, given as the ratio of its velocity in a vacuum to its velocity within the substance.

refractometer
an instrument for measuring idices of refraction.

refractory
a material that has a relatively high melting temperature and is capable of enduring continuous high temperature.

register
(1) to precisely align either manually or automatically one print color to another; (2) a mark on a design that identifies it as having been offically recorded with the US Patent Office.

register bond
a common lightweight writing paper designed for single and multicopy business forms.

register check
a mylar roll material that is coated with a light adhesive used to determine registration without printing a actual production sheet or part.

register device
a mechanical device used to align a design elements prior to or during printing.

register guide
physical stops, usually three in number, placed on the printing base in relation to two adjacent edges of the printing sheet to ensure proper positioning for printing; also called feed guides.

register locking system
a mechanical system where a printing screen and its printing base can be locked into position after adjustment to accomplish register.

register mark
a crosshair or othertarget image applied to original copy as an aid for positioning and aligning purposes.

register punch
a device used to cut holes in film flats to ensure registration.

registered numbers
heat-applied numbers that are centered on a transfer sheet of paper with precision.

registrar
a company that conducts quality system assestments to recognized quality system standards or set of requirements.

registration
refer to register.

registration lug
refer to ramp.

registration pin
a spring loaded finger inside a chuck that locates the ramp or lug and stops rotation at the registration point.

regression analysis
models the relationship between one or more independent variables and a dependant variable.

regrind
excess or waste material in a thermoplastic molding process that can be reground and mixed with virgin raw material.

relative humidity
the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere expressed as a percentage of the maximum that could be present at the same temperature.

relative mesh strength
a calculation of a specific cross section area of the threads.

relative sensitivity
the degree that a photographic emulsion is affected by light.

relative viscosity
the ratio of the absolute viscosity of the solution to the absolute viscosity of the pure solvent.

relaxation
the release of tension within the stretched screen mesh after a given period of time.

relaxation shrinkage
the shrinkage that occurs during the first laundering of a garment, due to the relaxing of tensions applied during fabric manufacture.

release
(1) the act of freeing or separating a decal from its backing or release liner; (2) the force required to accomplish the separation.

release agent
a lubricant used to coat a mold cavity to prevent the molded part from sticking to the mold; also referred to as parting agent.

release and adhesion tester
instrument used to measure adhesion values of pressure sensitive paper stock by recording the force required to strip away face material or label stock from the release liner at preset speed and angle.

release coat
the treated coating of the release liner that permits pressure sensitive label to release from the liner.

release coat transfer
a defect where the release coat adheres to pressure sensitive adhesive, detaching from the release liner during transfer.

release liner (backing sheet)(liner)
an extremely smooth paper on one side usually treated with a silicone used as a carrier for the pressure sensitive label stock, and serves as a protectant for the adhesive prior to application.

relief printing
a printing process where the print image area is raised above the non-image area such as flexography and letterpress printing.

remake
(1) to make anew; (2) to repeat for a better end result.

removability
the force required or the condition under which a pressure sensitive decal can be removed from a substrate.

removable adhesive
a pressure sensitive adhesive characterized by low adhesion properties allowing removal from a substrate or surface.

repeatability
(1) capacity for near-exact duplication of a former result; (2) continuous duplication of an image within a given tolerance.

repellency
the ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining.

replenisher
a chemical solution that extends the life of a developer and/or fixer solution.

reproduction
the multiple, identical duplication of an original.

reproduction copy
finished, camera ready art; also refer to camera ready art.

reproductive toxins
chemical substances that affect reproductive ability including chromosome damage (mutation) and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis).

reprographics
a method of copying used by architects and engineers to create blueprints.

reprography
A term originating in 1963 for the arts and sciences of copying and duplicating print quantities below commercial printing levels.

re-run
to redo a portion of or all of a job due to error or defect.

resampling
changing the resolution of a bitmap file without altering its physical size.

rescreen
halftone negative or positive made from a printed halftone usually with a diffusion filter placed in front of the camera lens to eliminate moiré patterns.

reservoir
(1) a unit on a press designed to hold and supply ink; (2) the blocked out area between one end or side of a screen printing stencil and the adjacent frame, where ink to be printed is held for pickup by the squeegee.

residual shrinkage
the percentage of shrinkage remaining in a garment after being pre-shrunk.

residual tack
the tackiness remaining in a film which, although set, does not reach the tack-free stage.

resiliency
ability to regain quickly an original shape after being strained or distorted.

resin
(1) any of a number of clear to translucent yellow or brown solid or semi-solid substances of plant origin as copal rosin and amber used in lacquer varnish ink, adhesive, and synthetic plastic; (2) in printing ink, the material that binds the pigment to the substrate.

resist
a plate coating that hardens over the non-image areas after exposure to light; mixed with bichromated gum or other coating solution protects non-image areas during etching.

resistance
the opposition a material offers to direct current flow, measured in ohms.

resistance, insulator
the ratio of an applied voltage to the total current carried by a specific insulating material.

resistance temperature characteristics
relationship between thermistor resistance and the temperature it is sensing.

resistor
a device, material, or component that offers opposition to the flow of an electric current.

resist printing (textile)
the printing of a resist agent on the cloth to prevent a printed ink from affecting a preselected protected area.

resite
a thermosetting resin at the C-stage, or final stage of processing, where it becomes insoluble, or cured.

resitol
an uncured thermosetting resin at the B-stage, or intermediate stage of processing.

resol
a thermosetting resin in its solvent-soluble stage.

resolution
(1) a measure of image sharpness or the performance of an optical system, expressed in lines per millimeter or lines per inch; (2) the smallest distance that can be measured by an istrument.

resolution target
any test image that measures the resolving power (ability to produce fine detail) of a printing system.

resolving power
the relative ability of a lens or emulsion to accurately reproduce fine detail.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 — RCRA (US)
a federal hazardous waste, solid waste, and waste reduction program involving remedial investigations, feasibility studies, and implementation of corrective measures.

retarder
an additive for ink that slows down drying time; a solvent with slower evaporation characteristics.

retensionable frame
a screen printing frame or chase with a built-in means of tensioning applied mesh.

reticulation
(1) a separation or cracking of a photographic emulsion caused by processing at too high temperature or thermal shock in transferring from a very warm bath to one that is too cold; (2) a defect where the ink film recedes in large areas due to incompatibility of the surface energy of ink and substrate.

retouching
the act of altering continuous tone prints, halftone negatives, or positives to eliminate defects, emphasize detail, or perform minor color corrections.

retrofit
the addition or removal of equipment, or a required adjustment, connection, or disconnection of an existing piece of equipment to comply with a change.

retro-reflective
the property of a material that causes it to reflect light back toward the source under non-daylight conditions.

return-blade
refer to flood bar.

reverse
an image that is the opposite of the original.

reverse printing
(1) process of printing on the second surface of a material, referred to as back printing; (2) forming an image by laying ink down around the subject and letting the white space show through to form the image.

reverse roll coating
a coating technique where the coating is pre-metered between rolls then wiped off the substrate, usually by a doctor blade, coating thickness is controlled by the metering gap and the speed of the rolls.

reversing turntable
a geared motor that reverses its motion automatically.

rewash
glassware that is washed due to misprint or mis-spray.

rewetting
(1) the re-softening of a dried ink film; (2) the ability of fresh ink to unblock dried ink in a mesh.

rewinder
a device for rerolling a substrate after printing.

rework
a salvage operation to recover defective work.

Reynold’s number
the ratio of a liquid’s inertial forces to its drag forces (flow rate and specific gravity are inertia forces, while pipe diameter and viscosity are drag forces).

RF
acroynm for radio frequency.

RFI
acroynm for radio frequency interference.

RGB
a color model using red, green, and blue, the additive primary colors used by video display.

RH
abbreviation for relative humidity.

rheogram
a graph of flow curves plotted by shear stress versus shear rate that provides a picture of a material’s response to varying shear rates, yield, stress, and thixotropy.

rheology
the science of flow and deformation of fluid matter under pressure: the study of flow characteristics of liquids.

reheology modifier
alters the flow characteristics of an ink.

rheopectic
the opposite of thixotropic, sometimes referred to as anti-thixotropic, a characteristic associated with some resins.

rhodamine red
a class of clean organic bluish red pigments with excellent light fastness, good resistance to acid, poor resistance to alkali, often called magenta when used in color process screen printing inks.

rich flame
refer to reducing flame.

ridging
a swelling of the outer layers of a roll material, usually due to moisture absorption.

RIFF
acroynm for raster image file format.

right-reading
copy that reads correctly (same as original) from the emulsion side.

rigid
inflexible; not bending.

rigid board
a fully cured laminate, generally over 0.030 inch thickness, used in manufacturing double-sided printed circuit boards.

rigid frame
a screen frame made of metal or wood where the mesh is tensioned and then glued to the frame.

rigid PVC
polyvinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride/acetate with a relatively high degree of hardness or resistance to bending or flexing.

rigidsol
a plastisol having a high modulus of elasticity.

ring-spun yarn
twisted strands of natural or synthetic material produced on ring-frame equipment, (a finer yarn than open-end yarn).

ringer
a t-shirt usually white bodied with contrasting ribbed neck and sleeve bands.

RIP
acroynm for raster image processing.

ripple finish
an irregular paper finish of undulations or waves formed by an embossing process.

risk
a relative term, referring to the expected probability of adverse effects from exposure to a substance or process.

rm
abbreviation for ream.

robotics
a mechanical computer controlled apparatus that resembles a human being and is capable of performing human task; the act of using robots.

robot, industrial
a programmable, multifunctional machine designed to perform specific, repetitive tasks.

Rockwell hardness number
number derived from the net increase in depth of impression as the load on a penetrator (steel ball or diamond cone) is increased from a fixed minimum load to a higher load and then returned to minimum load.

roll fed
a printing press or converting machine that recieves substrate as a continuous web.

roll label
pressure sensitive labels that are packaged in continuous roll form.

roll out
ink spread on a surface by hand roller or brayer for testing purposes.

roll-to-roll
refer to web fed.

roller coater (roll coater)
a machine designed for solidly coating sheet material by means of a series of rubber or steel rollers.

roller frame
a screen frame where the side members roll to tension the mesh.

roller rim punting
a method of applying color to the rim of an item with a neoprene or steel roller.

roomlight film
silver based photographic material that can be handled under yellow safelight, tungsten, or fluorescent lighting conditions.

room temperature curing adhesive
adhesive that sets within an hour at room temperatures from 21º to 30ºC (68º to 86ºF) and reach full strength without heating.

rope & groove
a screen stretching method that involves a wooden frame where the mesh is held in place by a rope pushed into a deep groove; no longer used in the industry.

rosette
a pattern formed when halftone color images are printed in register at the correct angle; a sub-image element in four color process that resembles the symmetrical shape of a rose.

rosin
a natural soft resin obtained after removing turpentine from the sap of a southern pine tree.

rosin oil
an oil obtained from the destructive distillation of rosin.

rotary load
refers to one design of a garment printing device whereby the loading pallet/platen rotates around a central shaft.

rotary screen printing
the screen printing of roll to roll (web) materials using a semi-rigid cylindrical metal screen that revolves on its axis with a squeegee blade mounted inside the print cylinder.

rotational register
registration of a work piece by rotating either the printing screen or the printing base on its center.

rotational viscometry
a method for measuring the viscosity of a material by sensing the torque required to rotate an immersed spindle at constant speed, where the torque is proportional to the viscous drag on the spindle, and thus to the fluid viscosity.

rotogravure printing
refer to gavure printing.

rough art (sketch)
a sketch or drawing that shows relationship of design elements, in unfinished form.

roughening
a treatment for abrading the smooth surface of the strands of monofilament screen printing mesh, for better adhesion of a stencil film.

round corner cutter
a specialized device used for cutting rounded corners on square-edged substrates.

Royal
a tradename for a paper size of 483 x 610 mm (19 x 24 inches).

rpm
aabbreviation for revolutions per minute.

rub fastness
refer to abrasion resistance.

rub test
refer to abrasion test.

rubber
an elastomer, sometimes used to manufacture squeegee blades.

rubber cement
a liquid adhesive composed of rubber dispersed in an organic solvent.

rubber solvent
a petroleum naphtha with an evaporation rate that is slower than textile spirits, but faster than lactol spirits used in rubber cement, rubber type adhesives,lacquers, intaglio and printing ink.

rubine
an organic reddish pigment.

rubine red
organic pigment with fair transparency, good bleed resistance, poor lightfastness, and poor alkali resistance.

rubometer
an instrument used for measureing the abrasion or scuff resistance of a print.

Rubylith

a thin red or amber light safe masking film coated on a polyester backing; a trademark of the Ulano Corporation.

rule
(1)a line used to delineate, separate or emphasize copy; (2) a steel blade used in making a die for diecutting.

Rule 66
The original US air quality control regulation enacted by Los Angeles County in California for the purpose of eliminating smog caused by petrochemical degradation of some organic solvents.

run
refer to printing run.

run chart
refer to trend chart.

runners
channels in a mold where the molten or liquid plastic flows into the mold to fill the cavaity.

running
(1) the action of a thin viscosity ink spreading beyond the point where originally applied; (2) a condition of the color forming tear droplets during the firing cycle.

running stitch
a stitch primarily used for welding, outlining, and quickly covering space between separate design elements in embroidiery; also called walking stitch.

run-off
any rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over land from any part of a facility.

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~ by Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار on March 28, 2000.

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