Image Dictionary S T U V W X Y Z

S
one of the common designations for monofilament screen mesh thickness; means small or fine.
s
abbreviateion for second.

saddle stitch
a common method of binding booklets where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside.

safe edge
an opaque strip on the blank edge of a photographic indirect stencil that is applied during exposure to provide an area for handling.

safelight
a lamp that gives light of a color that will not affect light sensitive material within a reasonable amount of time.

safety bar
an automatic cut-off device that is attached to the printing head of an automated screen printing press and stops the print cycle when contacted by the press operator.

safety cabinet
steel cabinet made with double wall construction for storage of flammable liquids in small containers.

safety can
a five-gallon or less capacity can with a self-closing spigot that relieves built-up internal pressure.

safety ink
ink that changes color or bleeds when ink eradication or water is applied, or can be erased easily.

sagger
a fired ceramic container to hold ware during firing to protect ware from the flames.

sagging
(1) the tendency of a wet, heavy ink, ink film, or a plastic to flow gravitationally on a vertical surface; (2) a firing defect characterized by bending or slumping of an article; (3) the process of heating a sheet of flat glass over a form causing it to take the shape of the form.

sail boat easel
an easel used in construction of a display involving a sail boat design.

salt glaze
a glaze produced by the reaction at elevated temperatures between a ceramic body surface and salt fumes produced in the kiln atmosphere.

sample
a small representative portion of a production run, product, or material.

sampling
the process of collecting statistical data or print samples from a production run for analysis.

sampling rate
the number of points of data, in pixels per inch, that are created by a scanner per linear distance; also refer to optical sampling rate.

sandblast
a process of decorating glass or wood by using an air dirven abrasive.

sand wash
a chemical or mechanical process where dye is removed from a garment with the use of acid to create a speckled look.

sandwich
the combining of films in register and securing them together.

sans serif
letters that do not have small spurs or extensions at the terminals, such as a Gothic typeface.

saponification number
the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify one gram of oil.

saponin
a glucoside capable of reducing surface tension and produceing a soapy lather.

satin etch
(1) a very smooth surface with low or dull reflection properties; (2) a material that is applied to glass surface then fired or cured to simulate acid etching.

satin stitch
closely placed stitches, similar to zig-zag except they alternate between straight and angular stitches of varying length and density.

saturated solution
a liquid containing the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in the liquid at a certain temperature.

saturation
(1) equals chroma; a measurement of the degree of pureness or movement away from gray; (2) the greatest degree of vapor that ambient air can hold at a certain temperature; (3) the greatest degree of concentration of a solute in a solution or solvent; (4) referred to as chroma in Munsell System.

sawtooth
a stairstep appearance on the edges of a screen print; the effect of stencil material that conforms to the threads of a screen printing mesh rather than the contours of the design on the film positive from which the stencil is produced. (Both insufficient bridging and filling-in of the meshes produces a notched effect where lines of the design cross the fabric mesh diagonally).

SBQ photopolymer
an emulsion with salt sensitizer (SBQ) that is linked to the polyvinylacetate (PVA) during manufacture.

scale
(1) printed range of values on a measurement instrument divided into either mathematical or logarithmic increments; (2) instrument for measuring by weight; also called a balance; (3) proportion between the dimensions of the original art and its reproduction. size.

scaling wheel
refer to proportion scale.

scalloped lock
a lock for connecting a hinged display member to a stationary part.

scamp
a sketch of a design showing the basic concept.

scan
the process of translating a image from artwork or transparency into digital information; the sequential examination or exposure of a character or image with a moving light beam.

scan linearity
the degree to which a plot of scanned reflectance or transmittance vs. absolute reflectance or transmittance is a straight line. Deviations in this plot either above or below a straight line represent tones that are recorded by the scanner as too light or too dark.

scanner
a hardware peripheral that illuminates, reads, and converts original information into digital data.

scarf
a joint formed by stripping or bolting two notched pieces together.

scatter diagram
an x-y chart that measures the relationship between two sets of variables.

scattering
the process by which light passing through a material is redirected in mant directions.

scattering coefficient
rate of increase of reflection over an ideally black backing, caused by the internal scatter of light in the surface of the paper that is not completely opaque.

scavenging
in the printing of solder paste through etched metal masks, this occurs where the flexible squeegee blade presses down into the open stencil cavity, with the result of scraping solder paste out of the stencil rather than depositing the desired thickness onto the substrate.

Schopper tester
a testing instrument used to measure the folding endurance of a paper; also refer to MIT tester.

scleroscope
a device to measure Shore hardness consisting of a small conical hammer fitted with a diamond point and acting in a glass tube. The hammer strikes the material and the degree of rebound is noted on a graduated scale.

scoop coater
a tool for coating screen printing mesh with liquid photosensitive emulsion; a tool typically a scrapper with a smooth metal trough used to spread thin layers of direct emulsion on a prestretched mesh.

score
(1) to press or crease a substrate with a dull or blunt edge to facilitate folding along a predetermined line; (2) the slitting of the liner paper at intervals to permit easier release of the pressure sensitive film.

Scotchlite
trade name of the 3M Company for a reflective sheet material used for outdoor applications.

scratch test
a ink adhesion test that involves placing a printed sample on a hard, smooth surface and scratching it with a fingernail using quite heavy pressure to determine if the ink imprint will flake off the surface.

screen
(1) an assembly of stretched screen printing mesh on a frame with stencil attached, ready for printing; (2) a transparent glass sheet placed before the camera film when photographing continuous tone art to produce dot structure of the design; another type is produced photographically on film with vignette dots which is placed in contact with the film.

screenability
a characteristic of how difficult or easy it is to print an ink, paste, or coating through the screen.

screen angles
the coordinated placement of screens to avoid moiré patterns.

screen carriage
the mechanism that holds the screen in the printing device. screen cutting
the wear and/or cutting from the substrate side of the screen mesh or stencil by rough or sharp substrate edges.

screen distance
the distance a halftone screen is set in front of the ground glass in a process camera to bring the dot structure into proper focus.

screen fabric
refer to screen mesh.

screen frequency
the number of lines or dots per centimeter or inch on a half tone screen.

screen gauge
a device for determining the screen ruling used in a printed halftone negative or positive.

screen holder
the fittings or clamps where a screen printing frame is attached to a screen printing press or manual screen printing unit.

screen knuckle
the area of overlap in woven screen mesh.

screen opener
a chemical, usually aerosol that is used to dissolve ink that has clogged the open areas of the stencil.

screening
the conversion of continuous tone copy to halftone copy.

screening in continuous tone
screen printing with several colors of ink, or inks of several densities of hue that have been mechanically blended on the printing screen so that one will blend smoothly without demarcation line into the next, producing evenly graduated tones without the use of halftone screens.

screen ink
a printing ink, usually quick drying, full bodied and specifically formulated for screen printing.

screen marks (mesh marks)
impression left by the mesh in the surface of the screen printed ink film.

screen mesh
(1) a woven material of synthetic polyester, nylon fiber, or finely drawn wire; (2) a woven mesh material used to hold the stencil in screen printing.

screen printing
a through printing process where the print areas of the printing form are open in sieve like fashion.

screen printing plate (printing screen, image carrier)
a frame or supporting device onto which is stretched and attached a mesh having open space in the areas of the mesh representing a design to be printed.

screen process printing
an obsolete term, now referred to as screen printing.

screen proper
the stencil portion of a printing screen.

screen range
the density difference between the highlight and shadow areas of copy that a halftone screen can produce.

screen reclamation
the process of removing the stencil from the mesh, so a new stencil can be applied.

screen ruling
the number of lines per centimeter or per linear inch in a halftone screen.

screen seepage
a leakage of ink through the open areas of the stencil when the printing action is stopped for a prolonged period of time.

screen stability
the ability of the stencil to print for a prolonged period without breaking down.

screen tint
a halftone film that has dots of uniform size and density across its surface; also refer to halftone tint.

screen value
the number of lines per square centimeter or square inch on any halftone, tint, or four-color separation. (The higher the screen value, the finer the screen and the more detail will be reproduced).

screen washer
a unit where printing screens can be rinsed to remove ink residue, or be reclaimed completely by removing the stencil.

screen working temperature
the temperature at which a heated printing screen is maintained while printing with thermoplastic inks.

scribing
to mark with a sharp pointed tool to make linesor other image.

scrim
a strong cloth of cotton or linen, canvas-like weave, coated or uncoated, used on banner edging as a support material.

scuffing
to mar the surface by scraping or rubbung.

scuff resistance
the ability of a dried ink film or substrate surface to withstand rubbing abrasion.

scum
(1) the slimy, colorless or nearly colorless residue that blocks the open areas of the printing screen when improper or incomplete wash out of the stencil occurs; (2) a cloudy or frosted appearance defect found on precious metal, bright surface of glaze, gloss, or porcelain enamel; (3) a dried skin that forms on the surface of stored ink.

sealed substrate
a porous substrate with a face coating designed to inhibit absorption.

sealer
liquid, solution, coating, or other material used for blocking-out unwanted holes or open areas of a printing screen, preventing ink from being forced through the screen mesh during the printing operation; also refer to blockout.

sealer coat
refer to barrier coat.

seam
an imperfection in joint of glass or mold mark on an article.

seamless nickel printing screen
a seamless, self-supporting all nickel printing stencil made by coating a metal base sheet with photosensitive material, exposing through the film negative, processing to eliminate the coating in the areas to be blocked in the stencil, then electroplating with pure nickel, to a thickness of just a few mils. After plating, the nickel is stripped from the base metal, and adhered to metal frame with epoxy cement, then stretched with wedges, making the printing screen complete. Letter centers and other unattached elements are secured by a fabric of nickel obtained by sandwiching a cross-hatch gravure screen as fine as 150 line in with the film negative at the time of exposure. No supporting fabric is required as with the conventional screen printing stencil.

seasoning
a process of bringing the temperature and/or moisture content of a material to printing room levels before printing.

second
a level of quality used to describe an irregular garment.

secondary color
(1) the subtractive primaries cyan, magenta, and yellow; (2) color obtained by mixing theoretically equal parts of any two primaries such as orange from red and yellow, green from yellow and blue, and violet from red and blue.

secondary standard
all standards other than primary standards.

second surface
the back or reverse side of a substrate.

seed
an extremely small gaseous inclusion in glass.

seediness
a defect in a varnish caused by small particles that sometimes become visible when examined by transmitted light like a specked or sandy appearance.

Segar cones
refer to pyrometric cones.

selective texturing
to create special effects on a matte or gloss film.

selective transparency
a process ink that absorbs certain parts of the color spectrum while reflecting others.

self-adhesive product
(1) a pressure sensitive material; (2) converted pressure-sensitive decal or product protected by a release liner.

self-extinguishing
capable of burning when in contact with a flame, but incapable of burning when flame is removed.

self-locking spacer
a part used in attaching cut-out to display background.

self-solvent
an ink formulated with the ability to dissolve dry films of itself by rewetting.

self-stretching frame (self-stretching chase)
proper term is retensionable frame, frame is not actually self stretching; refer to retensionable frame.

self-stripping punch
a tool for punching holes in display stock that automatically removes the waste from the punched hole.

self-tensioning frame
proper term is retensionable frame, frame is not actually self tensioning; refer to retensionable frame.

selvage
the edge of woven fabric that is finished to prevent fraying of the threads.

semi-automatic flatbed press
a screen printing press where the machine motion is automatic, the substrate is printed against a flat base plate, and the substrate is loaded and unloaded manually.

semi-automatic machine
equipment where the machine operation is automatic but the substrate is loaded and unloaded manually.

semiconductor
a solid material such as silicon or germanium with conductive capacity intermediate between an insulator and a good conductor such as soft copper. (Both active and passive elements may be formed on a single semi-conductor crystal).

semi-viscous
a partially vitrified ware that has a degree of continuous porosity that is able to absorb water.

sensitivity
the degree of response of a photographic material to light.

sensitivity guide
a continuous tone gray scale with numbered steps used to control exposure; also refer to gray scale.

sensitized emulsion
emulsion for making a direct method screen printing stencil to which a photo sensitizer has been added.

sensitized screen
a printing screen, the mesh that is coated with sensitized emulsion.

sensitizer
(1) a photosensitive chemical, usually potassium bichromate, aluminum bichromate, or diazonium compounds used for sensitizing photographic screen printing stencil films or emulsions; (2) a chemical added to a liquid emulsion to make it harden when exposed to ultraviolet light; (3) any chemical substance or mixture that causes a substantial number of persons to develop a hypersensitive reaction upon re-exposure to the chemical substance or mixture, through an allergic bodily reaction.

sensitometer
a device that measures the relative sensitivity of photographic materials to light.

separation negative
a photographic negative that has been imaged with a black-white record of one of the colors to be printed.

separation
refer to color separation.

sepia
a brownish tinted photographic print.

seps
abbreviation for separations.

sequence of colors
the order that the various colors in a multicolor print are applied.

sequential interpolation
line replication of pixels.

serializing
to consecutively number a series of items.

sericulture
the cultivation or raising of silk worms for the production of natural silk fiber.

serif
short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes in a Roman type face.

serigrapher
an artist who produces fine art originals or reproductions in limited editions by using screen printing techniques.

serigraphy
(1) the act of reproducing fine art originals by using screen printing techniques; (2) denotes the fine arts reproduction phase of the screen printing industry.

set
(1) to convert into fixed or hardened state by chemical or physical action; (2) the flow property of glaze or enamel slip, affects rate of drain, residual thickness, and uniformity of coating.

set off
the accidental transfer of ink from a printed substrate to the back of a subsequent sheet; also referred to as offsetting.

set point
the temperature that a controller is set to control a system.

setting of ink
the initial drying stage wherein a printed substrate, though not fully dry, can be handled without smudging.

settling-out
the separation of solid constituents from a liquid.

settling tank
a holding area for waste water, where heavier particles sink to the bottom.

set-up
(1) refer to make ready; (2) the installation of point of purchase material at destination and location.

set-up time
the physical time required to completely set-up a job for production.

SGIA
acronym for Specialty Graphic Imaging Association International, headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia USA.

sgraffito
a pottery or enamel decorating method where an image is scratched through the top glaze surface to expose a contrasting fired surface underneath.

shade
(1) a hue; the extent that a color is mixed with black; (2) the brigtness or luminance of an image when compared to a gray scale.

shaded effect
the darkening of color areas by the addition of black printed through a fine halftone screen or by using a Benday screen; refer to Benday.

shading sheets
transparent sheet and special sheet bearing visible or latent patterns of lines, dots, or designs, used to obtain shading and halftone effect in photographic positives or negatives.

shadow
the darkest areas of a design, illustration, or photograph; a shaded area.

shadow detail
subtle features in the darker part of an image.

shadow dot
the smallest dots in a halftone negative, or the coarsest or largest in the positive or print.

shadow point
the darkest tone printable in an image without being black.

sharpen
to make or become sharp or sharper.

sharp fire
combustion with excess air and a short flame.

sharp image
an image where every detail is accurately defined with respect to the original copy or subject; an image with accurate definition of lines and without distorted or fuzzy edges.

sharpness
the line and halftone resolution of detail in an image.

sharpening
(1) a picture enhancement that creates more distinct borders, areas, lines, or tones: (2) scanner option that empashizes detail by increasing the contrast of the boundries between light and dark areas of an image.

sharpening filters
a series of digital processes or algorithms that enhance the sharpness of an image.

shear
(1) an action or stress resulting from applied forces that causes or tend to cause two contiguous parts of a body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact; the relative movement of adjacent layers in a liquid or plastic during flow; (2) a cutting machine for trimming plastic, laminate, or printed circuit board.

shear adhesion
measure of internal strength of an adhesive; i.e. “cohesive” strength.

shear force
the internal force acting along a plane between two adjacent parts of a material when two equal forces, parallel to that plane, act on each part in opposite directions.

shearing strain
a measure of angular distortion.

shear mark
a scar-like imperfection found on some glassware from the cooling action of the shears in cutting the hot glob of glass from the extruder.

shear modulus
the ratio of the shear stress and the angular shear distortion.

shear strength
the shear force required to break a specimen divided by its cross sectional area; the force being applied parallel to the cross section area.

shear stress
where normal stress is perpendicular to the designated plane, shear stress is parallel to the plane.

shear-thickening
a phenomenon observed in dilatant fluids where viscosity increases as shear stress increases.

shed
the open area between warp and weft threads through which a shuttle is passed during weaving.

sheen
refer to specular gloss.

sheet
a single piece of paper or other material that is thicker than 254 micrometers (0.010 inches).

sheet caliper
the thickness of a substrate.

sheeter
a device on a printing press or converting machine to convert continuous roll lengths into smaller sheet units.

sheet fed
to mechanically pick-up and place separate sheets of a substrate into a press at predetermined intervals.

sheeting
a device to cut stock from continuous roll to individual sheets.

sheet matching
an accurate line-up from sheet to sheet, both vertically and horizontally, when either printing or posting an outdoor poster.

shelf easel
a display easel that forms and supports a shelf out of a flat display front.

shelf life (storage life)
the period of time a product can be stored under specified conditions and still remain suitable for use; refer to age resistance and pot life.

shelf lock
a lock used in the construction of display shelves.

shelf-talker
small sign affixed to the edge of a display shelf.

shell cup
a device for measuring the viscosity of a liquid.

shellac
an alcohol-soluble natural resin.

shingling
an allowance made during pastup or image assemby to compensate for creep.

shielding
protection of a unit or switch from electrical signal interruption.

shooting
to expose photographic film or photostencil materials to light.

Shore A
a hardness reading of an elastomer or other flexible material with a durometer on a scale from 0 to 100.

Shore D
a hardness reading of a rigid or semirigid material with a durometer on a scale of 0 to 100.

Shore hardness
a scale for measuring the indentation hardness of the material as determined by tests made with a durometer gauge or scleroscope, a higher number indicates greater hardness. (Consists of a ball for deflection or pin point for depression into the material, which is at least 100 mils thick – Instrument manufactured by Shore Instrument Manufacturing Co., Jamaica, New York USA).

shoreline
defect characterized by a series of rings or lines (similar to lines produced by receding water on seashore) in an enamel.

short exposure time
duration of exposure that is not as long in minutes, seconds, or other units of time measurement as accepted standard.

shorting pad
conductive dots or printed pads that operate to close a circuit.

short
mixtures of ink with low flow characteristics.

short ink
a printing ink that does not flow freely, and typically has a high yield value; typically described as buttery in consistency.

short run
screen printing production run that requires less than the average number of imprints usually produced.

short stitch filter
a digitizing program that eliminates stitches shorter than a predetermined length to reduce thread breakage.

short-term exposure limit (STEL). ACGIH-recommended exposure limit, maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a short period of time (15 minutes) for only four times throughout the day with at least one hour between exposures.

short ton
a unit of weight equal to 0.907 metric ton or 2000 pounds avoirdupois.

short wave infrared
wavelengths of between 0.76 and 2 microns that are typically reflected by light substrates and penetrated by darker colors.

showcard
an interior card that is printed on card stock with a standard size of 71.1 x 111.8 cm (28 x 44 inches).

show through
a condition where the printing on one side of a substrate can be seen from the other side when viewed by reflected light; also refer to transparency.

shrinkage
to become reduced in size.

shrink mark
a defect in a molded plastic part where the surface has retracted from the mold interface.

shute wire
in wire cloth, those wires that run across the width of the metal woven mesh, comparable to the weft threads in synthetic mesh.

shutter, camera
a device that controls time and amount of light that acts on sensitive material.

shuttle
(1) the device in a loom that carries the weft thread through the shed from one side of the web to the other; (2) the lower thread or bobbin in a sewing machine.

SI Systeme International d’Units (International System of Units)
(1) an abbreviation for Standard International Metric System, the name given to the metric system of units; (2) acroynm for silicone plastic.

SIC
acroynm for Standard Industrial Classification (US) no longer in use, replaced by North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS).

side clamp
a screen holding device on a textile printing press that secures the printing screen by clamping it on the sides rather than one end.

side heading
a sub-heading set flush into the text at the left edge.

side hinged pocket
a pocket that is attached to a display on one side only.

side stitch
a binding method by stapling individual pages together through the top of the stack.

side wire
to attach sheets on the side near the backbone.

sienna
a reddish variety of iron or magnesium oxide used as a pigment.

signal to noise ratio
the ratio of usable signal to unusable noise in a scan.

sign board
paperboard made of wood pulp, and reclaimed paper stock, usually 0.51 to 1.02 mm (0.020 to 0.040 inch) in caliper that is white patent-coated or clay-coated, and is treated for water resistance.

signcloth
textile material, usually cotton, of very close weave, ordinarily impregnated with a sizing to seal the porosity so the surface will accept hand lettering or screen printing with feather edging or blurring.

sign paper
an outdoor/indoor sign and poster material, generally made of bleached wood pulp and surface sized or treated; normal basis weights are 90, 100 or 110 pounds with rigidity, light fastness, water resistance, and fair strength.

silhouetting
a mask or image blocking that isolates an image from the background.

silica
a white or colorless crystalline compound occurring in quartz, sand, flint, agate, and many other minerals, used in glass manufacture and in some instances glass decorating colors.

silica aerogel
an almost pure silica used as a bodying agent in ink.

silicone
a polymer of organo-siloxane, used as an ink additive that aids in flow out.

silicone rubber
made from silicone elastomers noted for its retention of flexibility, resilance, and tensile strength over a wide temperature range.

silk
a natural fiber with the high tensile strength produced by silk worms used in the manufacture of multifilament threads for use in weaving fine textiles and screen printing mesh.

silking
a parallel hairlike marking that occurs in a coating.

silk manifold
the paper from which outdoor poster stencils are cut.

silk screen
archaic designation; refer to printing screen.

silk screen process (silk screen printing)
archaic designation, now obsolete; refer to screen printing.

silver bromide
a pale yellow crystalline compound that turns black on exposure to light used as light sensitive component in photographic film.

silver chloride
a white granular powder that turns dark on exposure to light.

silver halide
a silver salt such as silver chloride, silver bromide, or silver iodide suspended in a gelatin used in photographic film production.

silver iodide
pale yellow oderless powder that darkens on exposure to light.

silver ink
specially prepared suspension of finely milled silver particles in a variety of resin systems, used to produce conductive pattern on flexible and rigid substrate; refer to aluminum ink.

silver nitrate
a light sensitive compound that forms the base of all other silver compounds in photographic sensitizers.

silver recovery
the method of reclaiming silver thiosulfate from used fixing baths in photoprocessing, thereby reducing water effluent pollution and conserving a natural resource.

silver thiosulfate
a compound formed when silver nitrate photo emulsion is dissolved by thiosulfate in a fixer.

simple pocket
a display pocket that has a lock in the bottom.

simplex decal paper
a single sheet of heavy paper that has been coated with a water soluable adhesive used for decals smaller than 23 x 23 cm (9 x 9 inches); (2) temporary support sheet for a water slide decal prior to application.

simulated process color
a special computer and camera effect that creates a full color process look by using posterization and grayscale techniques.

single coated
a stock that has been coated on one side; refer to C1S.

single pole single throw (SPST)
a normal circuit configuration for a membrane switch.

single wing easel
refer to chair easel.

sink mark
a depression or dimple found on the surface of an injection-molded part.

single knit
cloth constructed on a circular knitting machine with only one set of needles.

sinkage
the blotchy effect caused by sinking in of an applied ink to a printed substrate with a porous surface.

sinter
a glass material or mixture fired to less than complete fusion, resulting in a coherent mass.

sintering
the formation of a solid mass by firing to fusion, but without complete vitrification.

size
(1) cuting paper stock to required size; (2) to coat a paper stock with a clear sealing agent to inhibit absorption of ink; (3) a material applied to fabrics to stiffen the cloth and inhibit absorbency.

sizing
chemicals mixed with pulp that makes paper less able to absorb moisture.

sizing standard
a standard range of dimensions, capacities, or weights used by all manufacturers.

sixteen sheet
a poster measuring 3050 mm x 2030 mm (120 x 80 inches).

skeleton black
the black film positive used in process printing to print only the shadow areas, but not sufficient for use in UCR or achromatic reproduction.

sketch
a rough drawing on any kind of paper, usually in pencil or felt marker, primarily to convey the idea of the projected design.

skew
occurs when a squeegee travels with its lengthwise dimension at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of its travel; also referred to as snowplow.

skid
(1) a wooden platform usually about 20.3 cm high (8 inches) supported by runners length-wise of the construction with heavy lumber crosswise; also referred to as a pallet; (2) any quantity of stock packed on a moveable platform.

skinning
a thin layer of dried ink that forms on top of a stored ink.

SKU
retail inventory term for stock-keeping unit.

SL
one of common designations for monofilament screen mesh thickness, means very fine.

slide
a 35mm transparency.

slide arm machine
the heating element of a heat transfer machine that slides away from the lower platen.

sliding latch lock
a lock used for set-up of folded display parts.

slip
a slurry containing clay minerals.

slip coating
a ceramic material or mixture other than glaze that is applied to a ceramic body and fired.

slipping
a defect that occurs during firing where the decoration slides from its original printed position down the side of the ware.

slip sheet
inexpensive sheet of waxed or treated paper placed between finished decals to prevent them from adhering to one another during shipment.

slit
(1) to cut paper using a disk or wheel; (2) to cut through the backing sheet or release liner of a decal to facilitate removal; (3) a cut through any sheet material for any purpose to indicate a separation line or to permit the escape of air if the sheet is closely contacted with another true surface.

slitter
a web cutting device that is mounted on a rewinder or other machine for cutting large parent rolls into narrower widths.

slitting
the reduction of a sheet or roll material by making parallel cuts along one dimension in order to form sheets or strips with less width.

sliver
a loose, untwisted strand of fibers that is removed after carding of fabric.

slow scan direction
the raster direction along which successive lines of pixels are arrayed perpendicular to the fast scan direction.

slug
(1) a strip of metal usually 6 point used for spacing in type composition; (2) one solid piece of line type.

slur
(1) a blur or smear in a print caused by movement at the moment of printing; (2) undesirable phenomenon of halftone dots becoming slightly elongated during printing.

slurry
a concentration of solid particles and rheological modifiers in water.

slush molding
a method for casting thermoplastic where the resin in liquid form is poured into a hot mold where a viscous skin forms.

SM
acroynm for surface mount.

small quantity generator (SQG)
in the US a firm that produces less than 100 kg (2200 lbs) of hazardous waste in a calendar month.

SMD
acroynm for surface mount device.

smearing
the overspreading of ink into non image area.

smelt
to melt or fuse.

SMOBC
acroynm for solder mask over bare copper.

smoothness
flatness of a surface free from projections or irregularities of the surface; to make flat or even.

SMT
acroynm for surface mount technology.

smudge resistance
the ability of a freshly printed surface to resist ink blurring or smearing.

SNAP
acroynm for specifications for non-heatset advertising printing.

snap distance
the distance between the mesh of the screen and the substrate surface.

snap lock
a device used for holding display parts, usually a notched tab that snaps into desired set-up position.

snap-off
(1) the ease that the mesh peals off the substrate as the print stroke is made; (2) a mistake that occurs when a textile substrate is unevenly pulled off a platen too quickly resulting in a misprint due to uncured ink touching unprinted parts of the garment.

SNG
abbreviation for synthetic natural gas.

snipe
printed sheet of copy or graphics that is posted over an existing outdoor poster.

snowplow
refer to skew.

soak period
the time the ware remains at peak temperature.

soda lime glass
most common glass manufactured made from a combination of sand, limestone, and sodium carbonate.

sodium meta periodate
an oxidizer that breaks down the chemical bond of most screen emulsions and is the chief active ingredient in most screen reclaiming solutions.

soft
a vitreous enamel that is fusible at a comparatively low temperature.

soft dot
a film halftone dot that is not completely opaque over its entire area and may have unsharp edges.

softening point
the temperature where a plastic begins to melt or deform with no externally applied force.

softening temperature
the temperature where enamel or frit begins to flow.

soft finish paper
paper stock that has not been treated on the surface to provide a higher sheen or to reduce absorption.

soft fire
a flame with an air deficiency.

soft hand
the degree of print softness in a textile after printing; a textile print with a soft feel.

soft hand additive
an extender base added to plastisol ink to produce better flow characteristics and a softer feel to the cured print.

soft proof
viewing a digital image with a monitor instead of generating a hard copy proof.

soft water
water containing less than 40 parts per million of calcium carbonate.

sol
abbreviation for solution; soluble.

solarization
(1) a change in the transmission and color of glass as a result of exposure to sunlight or other radiation; (2) to affect or harm by being exposed to extraneous light.

solder mask
refer to solder resist.

solder resist
a coating applied by screen printing to a printed circuit board to prevent bridges from forming between circuits during the soldering or hot-air leveling steps in production.

solder wave
a molten composition of lead and tin (solder) that is agitated mechanically so a wave is produced on its surface over which printed circuit boards are passed to solder all connections simultaneously.

solid
(1) an area of a print that is covered uniformly and entirely with ink and contains no halftone; (2) type that is set without leads between the lines; (3) a three-dimensional geometric part.

solid bands
cuffs on a garment that are knitted to the exact width required for the neck and cuff sizes without stitching seams.

solid print
an imprint that covers a given area with an opaque color without gradations or halftone dots.

solids
the components of an ink formulation other than the vehicle that remain a part of the ink film after the drying or curing process.

solids content
the percentage weight of non-volatile components in an ink or coating.

solids state device
an individual electrical element that is solid in state or construction, and which utilizes electrical magnetic properties.

solid waste
a garbage, refuse, sludge and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material, resulting from industrial and commercial operations.

soln
abbreviation for solution.

solubilize
to render something soluble.

solute
a dissolved substance.

solution
a uniform liquid mixture that consists of a solvent or liquid and a solute, or that part which dissolves in the solvent.

solvent
a dissolving, thinning, or reducing agent.

solvent activated
an adhesive that requires the addition of a solvent to activate bonding properties.

solvent attack
an effect or change in a material when contacted by a solvent. solvent dispersion
an ink where pigment is dispersed in a solvent solution containing a solvent-soluble binding agent.

solvent-evaporating ink
ink that is dried by allowing the solvent to vaporize either in ambient or elevated temperature conditions.

solvent evaporation
vaporizing of liquid solvent, resulting in their removal from a printed film.

solvent power
refer to solvent strength.

solvent reactivation
see solvent rewettable.

solvent release
the evaporation of a solvent during ink drying.

solvent resistance
the resistance of a printed area and/or the substrate to the dissolving action of specified organic liquids.

solvent rewettable
(1) a dry ink imprint that can be changed back to the wet state by introduction of a solvent; (2) a dry film that can be rewetted and removed by saturating with solvent.

solvent strength
the ability of a solvent to dissolve materials.

SOP
acroynm for standard operating procedure.

souring
the precipitation or coagulation of the ingredients in an ink due to contamination by water or other foreign material.

soya oil (soybean oil)
a vegetable oil used in the preparation of certain ink vehicles.

spacer
the separator between switch matrices in a membrane switch.

spacer easel
an easel that positions and locks two or more vertical parts of a display into a set-up position.

SPAI
acronym for Screen Printing Association International, the former name for the Specialty Graphic Imaging Association (SGIA) headquartered in Fairfax Virginia USA.

spalling
a defect in vitreous enamel characterized by the chipping or fragmenting of the surface coating, caused by coefficient of thermal expansion or contraction.

span
the difference between the upper and lower limits of a range.

spandel
a flat glass that is sometimes decorated for architectural use.

spatial resolution
the smallest feature of an image that can be detected as a fraction of the total image.

SPC
acroynm for statistical process control.

specialty paper
papers that typically contain 25 to 100% rag, or are polymeric coated, cast coated, or are high gloss.

specific adhesion
the force required to remove a pressure sensitive decal or label from a speicifed substrate under controlled conditions.

specification
a clear and accurate description of the technical requirement for materials, products, or services; a descriptive reference or a detailed itemized description of dimensions, plans, materials, and other requirements; the document that perscribes the requirements that the product or service has to met.

specification for nonheatset advertising printing (SNAP)
a set of standards for color separation and proofing developed for printing with uncoated paper and newsprint stock (USA).

specification for web offset publications (SWOP)
a set of standards for color separation films and color proofing developed for publication printing and magazine printers.

specific gravity
(1) the weight per volume of a material compared to water, less than 1.0, the material floats, greater than 1.0 and it sinks; (2) for solids and liquids, the ratio of the density of a material to the density of an equal volume of distilled water at a specified temperature; (3) for gases, the ratio of the density of a gas to the density of air; (4) the density mass per unit volume of any material divided by that of water at the standard temperature (4ºC).

specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise a unit weight of material one degree of temperature, expressed as calories/gm/ºC or Btu/lb/ºF; ratio of material’s thermal capacity to that of water at 15ºC.

specific modulus
Young’s modulus divided by material density.

specific strength
ultimate tensile strength divided by material density.

specific viscosity
of a polymer, the relative viscosity of a solution of known concentration, minus one.

specific volume
of paper, the volume per unit mass, under specified conditions; expressed in cubic centimeters per gram.

speck
a small spot, mark, or discoloration.

specking
a black spot that appears after firing, caused from dust and lint settling on a wet decoration prior to firing.

speckle
a pixel that is abnormally lighter than the surrounding area.

spectral curve
a curve that shows the specific amount of light at each wavelength transmitted by or reflected from a material, describing it just as the spectral energy distribution curve describes a source of light. (A fingerprint of a color).

spectral energy distribution curve
the amount of relative energy or light of a specific light source, emitted at each wavelength plotted against the wavelength of visible light (380 Nm to 760 Nm).

spectral highlight
the brightest white possible on a film or substrate.

spectral reflectance
the relative amount of light reflected from a surface.

spectral sensitivity
the relationship between the radiant sensitivity and the wavelength of the incident light.

spectral transmittance
the reflected light bands effected during radiation curing of dispersed pigments, (directly) affecting the absorption of radiation of the ink dispersion.

spectrodensitometer
a spectually based densitometer that combines the functions of a spectrophotometer, colorimeter, and densitometer.

spectrogram
a diagram showing the relative sensitivity of a photographic material to different wavelengths or colors of light.

spectrophotometer
photometric device for the measurement of spectral transmittance, spectral reflection, or relative spectral emittance.

spectro-radiometer
a device for determining the distribution and intensity of radiation, especially infrared.

spectrum
spatial arrangement of components of radiant energy in order of their wavelengths, wave number, or frequency.

spectrum colors
the arrangement of colors side by side as refracted by a prism; all of the individual colors present in sunlight which are visible on separating sunlight into the various wavelengths with a prism (red, orange, yellow, blue, green and violet).

spectrum electromagnetic
the entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from gamma rays to the longest radio wave includes visible spectrum.

spectrum visible
the range of wavelengths of the elctromagnetic spectrum from 400 to 700 nanometers.

specular gloss
the ratio of reflected to incident light at specified angles of incidenc, such as 20 degrees, 60 degrees, and 85 degrees.

spewing
the rising of incompatible components to the surface of a coating.

sp gr
abbreviation for specific gravity.

spin art
a method of garment decoration where the ink is distributed by centifugal force.

spine
that part of an easel that is glued to the display; also refer to backbone.

spiral binding
a book bound with wires in spring form inserted through holes punched along the binding side.

spit out
a glaze defect similar to a pinhole caused from minute gas bubbles escaping from the body or glaze.

splice
to unite or join.

split
(1) to divide or separate.

split back (back slit, split liner)
a slice in a release liner to facilitate removal of the decal.

split back pattern
a dimensional layout pattern of a series of slits in the release liner of pressure sensitive label stock.

split face
a slit in the face of pressure sensitive product to facilitate removal from the liner.

split fountain
a process of blending adjacent quantities of different colors in the screen, producing a muti-colored gradated print with one squeegee stroke.

SPM
acroynm for stitches per minute.

spot coating
a clear coating, where the applied coating material is confined to certain area on the substrate.

spot color
color that is printed as a solid area in a design.

spot cure
refer to flash cure.

spot varnish
to coat specific portions of a sheet with a clear coat.

spotting
retouching a processed photographic print with pencil or brush using water color or dye to eliminate spots left by dust on the negative.

spray adhesive
aerosol adherent used to hold a textile to the platen during printing.

spread
a camera process whereby images are made bigger without changing their general shape or positioning.

spreading
a thickening or enlarging of a printed area caused by bleeding or lateral penetration of ink.

spreading rate
the area covered by a unit volume of printing ink or varnish, expressed in square feet per gallon.

SPST
acroynm for single pole single throw.

SPTF
acronym for Screen Printing Technical Foundation, headquartered in Fairfax, Virginia USA.

spud
an orfice, used in high pressure gas mixers to pre-select the desired rate of fuel usage.

spunbonding
a sheet or web formed by random distribution of very fine continuous fibers that are bonded by heat and pressure such as Tyvek banner material.

sq
abbreviation for square.

SQC
acroynm for statistical quality control.

SQG
acroynm for small quantity generator.

square centimeter
a unit of measure of area in the metric system where each side of a square equals a centimeter and is equivalent to 0.155 square inches; abbreviation cm2.

square dot
a halftone dot pattern where the dots are square like a checkerboard.

square foot
a unit of measure of area where each side of a square is equal to a foot and is equivalent to 144 square inches; abbreviation ft2.

square inch
a unit of measure of area where each side of a square is equal to an inch and is equivalent to 6.452 square centimeters; abbreviation in2.

square meter
a unit of measure of area in the metric system where each side of a square is equal to a meter and is equivalent to 0.84 square yards; abbreviation m2.

square root
a quantity whose square equals a given quantity such as as 3 is the square root of 9; a number of quantity when squared, or multiplied by itself will produce a given number of quantity; symbol Ã.

square yard
a unit of measure of area where each side of a square is equal to a yard and is equivalent to 9 square feet; abbreviation yd2.

squeegee
a blade used to force ink through the openings of a screen printing stencil when in contact with a substrate; (2) a small plastic device used to burnish down self adhesive vinyl.

squeegee angle
(1) an angle formed by the near-vertical axis of the squeegee and the plane of the screen, measured when the squeegee is in print position, but with no applied force or movement; also refer to angle of attack.

squeegee carriage
a mechanism or device that holds the squeegee at the proper angle for printing.

squeegee holder
that part of a screen printing press or manual screen printing unit to which the squeegee is attached for printing.

squeegee oil
a mixing medium in liquid form of organic material used as a vehicle in direct printing paste.

squeegee paste
a mixture of squeegee oil and finely divided inorganic materials compounded for screen printing on glass.

squeegee pickup
refer to stop gap.

squeegee pressure
the force exerted by the squeegee on the printing screen to bring it into contact with the substrate and press ink through the open screen apertures.

squeegee printing edge
that corner or edge of the squeegee blade that contacts the mesh to force the ink through the stencil.

squeegee profile
the cross-sectional shape of the squeegee blade.

squeegee sharpener
a mechanical device to restore sharpness to a squeegee edge.

SRA
a paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes, slightly larger than the A series, allowing the printer extra space for bleed.

SRM
acroynm for standard reference material.

s/s
abbreviation for same side.

stability
to resist sudden change.

stabilizer
chemicals used in plastic formulations to assist in maintaining physical and chemical properties during and after processing; an additive that acts to prevent or limit changes in the physical properties of a substance during processing or product life.

stage connector
a display part used in stage-like constructions.

stagnation pressure
the sum of the static and dynamic pressures of a fluid.

stain
(1) to discolor or blemish; (2) to color or dye by penetration.

stainless steel screen
printing screen made of woven stainless steel mesh, also referred to as wire cloth.

stairsteps
refer to sawtooth.

stamping
to impress forcibly or permanently; also refer to hot stamping.

stamping die
a die used for foil stamping.

standard
a acceptable measure of comparison for quantitative and qualitative value.

standard colormetric observer
an entity described by the CIELAB color model consisting of three spectral sensitivity curves called color matching functions.

standard condition
the condition of a test specimen that has attained equilibrium under specified temperature and humidity. (Usually recognized as 23 degrees C / 73 degrees F) and 50% RH).

standard designs
artwork that is readily available; clip art.

standard deviation
a measure of dispersion of a frequency distribution.

standard fading hour
a specification for the exposure of a coating to ultraviolet light under standard conditions, refer to fadeometer.

standard reference material
a physical sample that has been calibrated to an accepted primary standard or set of standards.

standby time
the period of time during which a press is ready for printing, but not producing prints; idle press time.

stand oil
term used in United Kingdom; refer to linseed oil.

star target
a quality control aid with pie shaped wedges of lines that converge to the center.

starved area
a section in a molded plastic part that has insufficient amount of resin to wet out the reinforcement completely.

starved glaze
a glaze that lacks shine from thin application or insufficient firing.

starved joint
a junction of two members that have insufficient adhesive to form a permanent bond.

static
bound electric charge on the surface of an insulating material.

static decay
time required in seconds for a charge placed on the surface of an insulating material to decay to a percentage of the original charge, performed at specified relative humidity conditions.

static electricity
a built-up electrical charge on the surface of a substrate, or other surface, usually induced by friction, and most evident under low humidity conditions.

static eliminator
equipment or device for removing or neutralizing and electrical charge.

static frame
a screen frame made of metal or wood where the mesh is tensioned separately and then attached to the frame using an adhesive; refer to rigid frame.

static shield
a printed membrane switch conductor pattern or separate aluminum or copper film used to reduce the effects of static discharge.

static pressure
pressure of a fluid whether in motion or at rest, sensed in a small hole drilled perpendicular to and flush with the flow boundaries so as not to disturb the fluid in any way.

station tension
the tension existing within a screen mesh that has been stretched taut, but without additional applied force.

statistical process control (SPC)
the application of statistical methods and techniques to the control of quality.

statistical quality control (SQC)
a process sampling and charting method for quality assurance.

Status A
the acceptance standard for reflection densitometers for measuring photographic color prints.

Status E
the acceptance standard in Europe for color reflection densitometers.

Status I
a densitometer response referrsd to as narrow band or interference type response.

Status T
a card of carefully calibrated white, black, and color patches used to check spectral (color) response of wideband reflection densitomer.

std
abbreviation for standard.

steady flow
a continous movement; one that does not vary significantly with time.

steatite
a ceramic product similar to porcelain produced by pressing or extruding a mixture of talc, special clay, flux, and a binder under pressure, air drying the product, then fusing the ingredients at a temperature of about 1316ºC (2400ºF) in a continuous tunnel lehr.

steel rule
ribbon-like metal that is formed into a desired shape to make dies for die cutting.

steel rule die
a cutting device consisting of steel knives mounted in lasercut grooves or formed in metal at 0.937 inches high and assembled on a die board 0.75 to 0.875 thick; a cutting die made by shaping ribbons of steel to desired contours.

STEL
acroynm for short term exposure limit.

stencil
the component of a printing screen that controls the contour of the design to be printed.

stencil design area
that portion of a screen printing stencil that includes only the predetermined design to be printed.

stencil mesh
refer to mesh, mesh plain, mesh twill, metal screen mesh.

stencil knife
a tool for cutting screen printing stencil film.

stencil medium
any film, emulsion, or sheet material of any kind from which a screen printing stencil can be made.

stencil silk
a mesh made from multifilament strands of silk for making printing screen; no longer used in the industry.

stencil thickness
the actual thickness of the stencil portion of a printing screen measured in mils.

stencil volume
the total volume of a single imprint segment represented by the width of aperture times length times total depth of fabric and stencil.

step and repeat
a technique of repeating a single image in accurately arranged and spaced increments, to obtain multiple copies of the same design on a single sheet.

step exposure
the progressive exposure of a piece of sensitized material by using a number of uniform increments of time to determine the correct exposure time under that given set of conditions; also refer to step test.

step test
a multiple exposure to determine correct exposure time for film or photographic emulsion.

step-wedge
a scale of density steps increasing from transparent or white to opaque or black; also refer to gray scale.

sticky-back
a double-sided pressure-sensitive adhesive tape.

stiffener flange
a protruding rim, edge, or collar; (made by scoring near the edge of display part that must be bent at an angle to the face of the display to increase stability).

stiffness
(1) the measure or degree of resistance to bending stress of a sheet material; (2) high viscosity in ink formulation.

stippled finish
a pebbly textured enamel applied by a stippler brush or sponge.

stilt
a small tripod stand for holding ware during firing; also called a jax.

stochastic
a random placement dot strategy to render images.

stochastic screening
a technique to produce dot patterns that are randomly distributed; to separate an image into very fine, radomly placed microdots, rather than a grid of geometrically aligned halftone cells.

stock
paper or other material to be printed; also refer to media, substrate.

stock saver
a combination easel back and display designed from one piece.

stoddard solvent
a high flash point hydrocarbon with a good odor, and comparatively widely used for screen cleaning where inks are soluble in mineral spirit type solvents.

stone
an official British unit of weight equal to 14 pounds.

stoneware
a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic ware of fine texture made from nonrefractory fireclay.

stop bath
an acid rinse, usually a weak solution of acetic acid, used as a second step when developing black-and-white film or paper; stops development.

stop gap
an open space in the design layout for screen printing around the circumference of a cylindrical object, prevents smearing of the previously printed area.

stop mark
mark showing a change in the density of a woven mesh caused by irregular tension on the warp threads.

stove-enamel
process of metal sign printing where each printed coat, including the clear lacquer finish, is individually oven cured for maximum durability.

stoving
the process of drying and hardening an ink coating by heating at a temperature of above 80 degrees C (175 degrees F).

straight line decorating
screen printing where the screen moves in a straight line instead of an arc when printing.

strain
the application of tension beyond normally specified limits, as in the stretching of screen printing mesh, measured by the ratio of the unit change to the original dimension.

strain gage
a measuring element for converting force, pressure, or tension into an electrical signal.

strand
(1) fibers or filaments that are twisted together; (2) a single filament, fiber, or thread.

strand size
diameter of a single filament, fiber or thread or a twisted multi-fiber measured in microns.

streak
a relatively long narrow line, mark, smear, or stripe.

streamer
a long narrow paper or plastic banner.

stream feeder
the action of an automatic feeding system where sheets are fed to a machine or press without appreciable or predetermined interruptions.

stress
the force per unit area resulting from the application of a load.

stress crack
the susceptability of a thermoplastic to crack or craze under the influence of certain chemicals, aging, weather, or other stress; small fineline, cobweb like microscopic, and larger defects found in plastic caused from tension stress or chemical attack.

stretch
(1) the degree to which a material can accommodate deforming tension; (2) the tensioning of screen printing mesh; (3) to increase the quantity of a mixture by dilution.

stretcher bars
pneumatic device for clamping to the edges of screen printing mesh in order to stretch the mesh over the frame.

stretch frame
a screen printing chase constructed so additional tension can be applied to the mesh after it is secured to the frame; also refer to retensionable frame.

stretch ink
an ink film that after printing and curing on a substrate can be stretched with the substrate and returning to its original form on release of tension.

striation
curving fine, thread-like narrow band.

strike off
a sample or proof print.

strike through
the penetration of the vehicle of a printing ink through the substrate so that the design is apparent on the opposite or back side of the substrate.

stringiness
the condition of an ink or adhesive to draw into filaments or thread-like extensions.

stripping
(1) the act of removing the stencil from screen mesh in reclaiming operation; (2) removing waste material from the support sheet after die cutting; (3) removing unwanted film from the support material of a knife-cut stencil; (4) refer to film image assembly.

stripping film
photographic film where the emulsion, after processing, can be relocated onto another support; knife-cutting film with the same capability.

stroke
(1) a single pass with the squeegee across the screen; (2) one of the lines of a written character; (3) distance from the contact surface on a switch to the current pattern on the mating contact.

stub roll (butt roll)
a web roll remnant of material that remains after processing.

styrene
a usually colorless plastic used in the manufacture of indoor and outdoor displays and signs.

sublimable dyes
a colorant that can be vaporized from a solid directly to a gaseous state by the application of heat.

sublimation
a process where dye pigments change from solid to vapor and back to solid again with the application of heat.

sublimation transfer
a process of image transfer to a fabric containing high polyester content through the application of heat and pressure.

sub-miniature
parts, components, or circuits of a size class below what is described as miniature; extremely small.

substance
(1) that which a thing is made of; matter; material; (2) designator for the weight in pounds of a ream of paper.

substance weight
refer to basis weight.

substrate
(1) a material or surface to be printed, adhered to, or finished; refer to media, stock; (2) a base material or foundation over which another material is applied.

subsurface printing
placing the image on the underside of the substrate; also refer to second surface.

subtractive color
combining two additive primaries (red, green, light blue) at 100% to produce colors of cyan, magenta, and yellow. (Green and blue at 100% produce cyan; red and blue at 100% produce magenta; green and red at 100% produce yellow); cyan, magenta, and yellow.

subtractive primary
the three colors that are used to create all other colors in color printing: cyan, magenta, and yellow.

suckers
rubber suction cups used as a gripper to feed stock into a press.

sulfide
an enamel combined with one or more atoms of sulphur.

sulphate wood pulp
paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of caustic soda and sodium sulphide.

sulphite wood pulp
paper pulp made from wood chips cooked under pressure in a solution of bisulphite of lime.

sump capacity
the ability of a container built into an etching device to hold a measurable quantity of etchant.

sunlight resistance
refer to lightfast.

sunlight resistant adhesive
an adhesive that impedes the affects of ultraviolet rays.

supercalender
a calender stack, not part of the paper machine, with alternate metal and resilient rollers for producing increased density, smoothness, and gloss on paper.

supercalendared finish
a finish obtained by passing paper through alternating rollers of extremely polished steel and cotton under pressure to create a smooth gloss finish.

suppressed spark treatment
an electrical surface treatment, similar to corona discharge, but utilizing a suppressed spark to create the corona instead of an electrical spark discharge.

surface-color-perception solid
in the Munsell color system, a cylindrical solid based on the three color perception attributes of hue, lightness and saturation.

surface mount device (SMD)
a component that is attached to the surface pad of a substrate to perform an electronic function.

surface mount technology
printed circuitry where surface mounted component leads are soldered to the top level conductors of the printed circuit board (PCB).

surface resistivity
the resistance of a surface of an insulating material to the flow of direct electrical current; the electrical resistance between opposite edges of a unit square on the surface of an insulation material express in ohm/sq.

surface tack
the force (in grams) necessary to cause separation of material or surface in contact.

surface tension
the property of a liquid that causes the surface to pull into the smallest area for maximum volume; measured in dynes/cm.

surface treatment spray
silicone, wax, or stearate applied to glass surface to increase scratch resistance and reduce breakage, applied as glass exits annealing zone of the lehr (causes decoration problems).

surfactant
a material used in small amount to modify the surface properties of liquids or solids. (Detergents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, dispersion agents, and foam inhibitors are all surfactant).

surprint
in photography an exposure from one negative superimposed upon a previous exposed image of a second negative.

swash
a capital letter with an ornamental flourish.

swatch
a small sample piece of material used for color matching or color measurement; also refer to as a color swatch.

swatch book
a booklet containing small samples of paper or ink color.

sweating
(1) condensed atmospheric moisture; (2) to excrete moisture through a porous surface.

sweep speed
the speed that the squeegee travels across the printing screen.

swivel stencil knife
a stencil knife that has a freely rotating blade or pin, used for cutting stencil film.

SWOP
acroynm for specification for web offset printing.

sym
abbreviation for symbol.

symbol
a pictorial object representing a function.

synchronize
to operate in unison; to cause to operate with exact coincidence in time or rate.

syneresis
the exudation of plasticizer from a plastic or polymer formulation.

synergy
a combination of chemicals that brings about some type of risk.

symmetry
the balance of design elements where one side equals another.

synthetic fabric
any fabric made from man-made fibers, strands, or threads.

synthetic paper
a non-cellulosic material that is made from plastic or other non petroleum based product.

synthetic resin
complex chemical resin produced through reactions of simple molecules; a man-made resin.

T
(1) prefix for tera in the metric system; (2) one of three common designations for monofilament screen mesh thickness; meaning regular or standard.
t
prefix in the metric system for metric ton; troy.

tablet (Graphics Tablet)
an input device that uses a stylus or specialized mouse to write or draw on the tablet surface to communicate with the computer.

tack
(1) condition of being sticky; (2) the relatively low splitting force of ink; (3) a large loose stitch used as a temporary fastener of fabric.

tack-free finish
any coating or ink that is not sticky to touch after curing or drying.

tackifier
an additive used to improve stickiness of an adhesive film; also refer to detackifier.

tackmeter
instrument used to measure the stickiness of material by pressing two surfaces together under a known weight for a given time period, and then using a steadily increasing force to separate them.

tack rag
a treated cloth used to remove dust or other foreign material from a surface.

tack surface
a surface having a sticky feel.

tactile response
the sudden snap-back of a membrane switch.

tactile signage
high contrast, raised or incised sign intended for the visually impaired.

tactile switch
an assembly that provides a positive snap-action reponse.

taffeta weave
a particular type of weave for screen mesh where single strands in the width direction (weft) cross over then under single strands in the length direction; a plain weave.

tag
a strip made of cardstock, paper, or plastic attached to an item to idenify, classify, or label it.

tag stock
thin flexible cardboard available in white and a range of colors.

tagged image file format (TIFF)
a file format used to represent black and white, grayscale, or color bit mapped images; a common format for interchanging digital information.

take-off device
a mechanical device for removing freshly printed substrates from the press.

talc
a hydrated magnesium silicate used to reduce gloss and give velvet finish in ink formulations.

tamper proof adhesive
a label adhesive that is extremely aggressive and will not permit removal in one piece.

tamper-proof label
a pressure sensitive made of low strength face material so attempted removal of the label results in its destruction.

tank
a production furnace for melting glass.

tap out
a spot of ink applied to a substrate with the finger, using a tapping action to distribute the ink evenly to approximate printing film thickness.

taped neck
an additional piece of flat knit generally sewn over the original seam, attaching the neck to the body of the garment.

tapering
to become gradually thinner or narrow towards one end; diminish, make smaller.

TAPPI
acronym for Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (US).

TAPPI (GE) brightness
the reflectance of blue light measured under carefully controlled geometric, photometric, and spectral conditions.

TARGA
acroynm for truevison advanced raster graphics adaptor.

target
the portion of the original to be scanned.

tear strength
(1) the force required ti initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions; (2) the force required to tear an elastomer divided by the sample thickness.

tear tab
an additional area of face stock attached by the release liner to a pressure sensitive label produced in single form to facilitate removal of the release liner.

tearing resistance
(1) internal (or continuous) measured where the edge of the material has been cut prior to the actual tear, expressed in grams of force required to tear 16 sheets; (2) edge-tearing resistance measures the force required to make an initial tear; (3) torsion-tearing resistance of paper or paperboard is the energy expanded in propagating a tear when the tearing force is applied in such a manner as to create a twist or torque.

Teflon
a trademark of the Du Pont Corporation for polytetraflouoroethylene, a waxy opaque material.

telephone poles
an embrodiery needle that is larger than a number 14.

temp
abbreviation for temperature.

temperature humidity controls
equipment or device for regulating both temperature and humidity in given areas.

temperature tapes
paper material treated with a heat sensitive colored substance that drastically changes color at a specified temperature.

tempered
having the required degree of hardness or elasticity.

tempered glass
glass that has been strengthened by chemical tempering or by rapid cooling from near its softening point.

temporary support
any support sheet on which film or printed material is placed for handling between initial process and final positioning.

tenacity
the relative strength of a textile fiber, expressed in grams of breaking force per denier unit.

tendon lock
a lock for interchangeable cards, usually a tap or tongue inserted into a slot.

tensile modulus
the ratio of stress to strain in a material that is elastically deformed.

tensile strength
(1) a measurement of the deformation produced in a material by an applied force; (2) the ability of a material to resist lateral strain or longitudinal stress from being pulled in opposite directions.

tension
(1) the tightness of a stretched screen mesh; (2) the stress caused by a force or forces operating to extend, stretch or pull apart a material; (3) tautness of thread when forming stitches.

tension loss
a decrease in mesh tension from original tautness.

tension stability
the property of stretched mesh to retain a balanced state of tautness.

tensioning system
a mechanical device for stretching screen mesh to correct tension.

tensiometer
refer to tensionmeter.

tensionmeter (tensiometer)
(1) an instrument used to measure the tautness of screen mesh in Newtons per centimeter; (2) an insturment to measure surface and interfacial tension of liquids, or tensile strength of solids.

tent card
small displays made of light weight stock, scored in the center for folding.

tera
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the twelfth power (1012) or 1 000 000 000 000.0; symbol is T.

terabyte
1,099,511,627,776 bytes of computer memory; one thousand gigabytes or one million megabytes.

teratogen
a chemical that has been scientifically demonstrated to cause physical defects in the developing human embryo.

termination
(1) a chemical reaction between polymer radicals that result in a solid polymeric network; (2) point where a membrane switch gets connected to a device.

terpenes
a group of aromatic hydrocarbons that include turpentine, dipentine and others of the aliphatic class.

terpolymer
a polymer composed of three different monomers where the repeated structural units of all three are present within each molecule such as ABS.

terrace easel
an easel for supporting several levels of a display.

tertiary colors
the three colors created by mixing combinations of secondary colors; any intermediate hue that contains some parts of each of the three primary colors.

test impression
refer to proof.

testing
a means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements.

text
written or printed descriptive words or copy.

textile
(1) a woven cloth or fabric; (2) fiber or yarn for weaving into fabric.

textile lacquer
screen printing ink manufactured with lacquer base suitable for decorating cloth.

textile screen printing
the decoration by screen printing of colors or dyes on woven or non-woven fabrics, printed as continuous yard goods, cut goods, or a completed textile unit.

texture
the feel or appearance of a material.

texture mapping
placing a texture or image file on the surface of a 3D computer image.

theoretical ink volume (TIV)
a mathematical representation of the volume of a cube of ink in a mesh opening that is calculated from the open area and mesh thickness specifications.

thermal chromatic
a special compound of micro encapsulated organic crystals with a pigment base that turns colorless at specified heat ranges; ink or dye that changes color when subjected to specified heat ranges.

thermal coefficient of resistance
the change in resistance of a semi-conductor per unit change in temperature over a specific range of temperature.

thermal conductivity
the relative ability of a material to conduct heat; referred to as K-factor.

thermal diecutting
cutting to desired shape by means of heated elements, usually magnesium dies that have been formed to the desired design.

thermal endurance
relative ability of a material such as glass or other rigid substrate to withstand thermal shock.

thermal expansion
an increase in size due to an increase in temperature expressed in units of an increase in length or increase in size per degree such as inches/inch/degree C.

thermal film
a heat sensitive film that turns from clear to black when exposed to heat; the film that carries an image from a thermal imagesetter.

thermal gradient
the distribution of a different temperature through a body or across a surface.

themal printer
a nonimpact printer that uses heat sensitive paper to form an image.

thermal sensitivity shift
the shift in sensitivity due to changes of the ambient temperature from room temperature to the specified limits of the compensated temperature range.

thermal setting
the use of elevated temperatures in curing to obtain a useable form of product.

thermal shock
the facture of a material that results from rapid temperature change.

thermal shrinkage
refer to free shrink.

thermal stress
cracking or crazing of a thermoplastic material from exposure to high temperatures.

thermal transfer printer
a machine that digitally prints by transferring inks (resin or wax) from a foil or ribbon onto a media.

thermal wax printer
a medium-resolution color output device that must first separate the color information for continuous tone and spot color into three or four primaries, and are printed in multiple passes, one for each color. A/k/a thermal wax transfer.

thermal zero shift
an error due to changes in ambient temperature where the zero pressure output shifts, moving the entire calibration curve in a parallel displacement.

thermistor
a resistor composed of semiconductors having resistance that varies rapidly and predictibly with temperature. (Thermistors usually have negative temperature coefficients and are often used as a temperature controller in a dryer).

thermocouple
an instrument for measuring temperature difference, usually constructed of two dissimilar joined metals for producing a thermo-electric current that is transmitted to a scale for direct reading.

thermochromatic ink
ink that is designed to change or loose color when the ambient temperature is increased, formulated to shift at different temperature levels, and to shift back to original color when the ambient temperature is reduced.

thermoforming
process for forming a sheet of plastic into a three- dimensional shape through the application of heat and pressure, also refer to vacuum forming.

thermographic paper
a substrate where the image is formed by an irreversible chemical change that occurs when heat is applied or as a result of a physical change that occurs in a thin coating over the sheet.

thermography
a printing process where the ink, while still wet, is dusted with a resinous powder that adheres to the ink, which is then heat treated causing the powder particles to fuse together giving a raised effect.

thermoplastic (TP)
plastic material that can be made to flow repeatedly with the application of heat; to become soft when heated and solid when cool.

thermoplastic adhesive
a double-layered flock transfers with an additional coating of adhesive, between the silicon coated paper and the plastisol layer (flock adhesive).

thermoplastic toner
resin particles melted by heat that are cooled to form a solid.

thermoset
a type of plastic that under the influence of heat softens and then becomes permanently set and infusible when cooled; a plastic material that once cured cannot be made to reform.

thermosetting ink
ink that polymerize to a permanently solid and infusible state upon application of heat and sebsequent cooling.

thickener
inert composition formulated for intermixing with thin viscosity ink or dye to increase body or add bulk.

thick film circuit
circuits consisting of screen printed patterns of conductive inks or coatings on ceramic substrates that are fired at high temperatures.

thick film ink
refer to conductive ink.

thickness gauge
a type of instrument used to determine the thickness of a stencil, screen mesh, or ink layer.

thin film circuit
circuit made by printing conductors, resistors, and capacitors in a prescribed arrangement on a dielectric substrate, then adding complete prefabricated active components to the thin film structure. (The prescribed pattern may also be obtained by evaporating or sputtering certain materials in a vacuum by selectively masking undesired substrate areas).

thin film ink
screen printing ink used in the production of thin deposit or etched electronic circuits.

thin negative
a negative that is underexposed or underdeveloped.

thinner
a liquid that reduces viscosity, but does not impair the power of the solvent.

thin stencil
(1) a thin gauge film on a support sheet for knife-cutting; (2) an inadequately exposed photoscreen stencil or one that has been deliberately underexposed to obtain a film that is thinner than the available potential thickness.

thirty
symbol used in newspapers to designate the end of a story.

thirty (30) sheet poster (billboard)
larger outdoor poster approximately 297 x 663 cm (117 x 261 inches), usually consisting of 12 sheets or less; refer to poster paper.

thirty-two sheet poster (billboard)
larger outdoor poster approximately 305 x 406 cm (120 x 160 inches).

thixotropic fluid
liquid whose viscosity decreases as shear rate of agitation increases.

thixotrophy
the property exhibited by certain compounds to liquefy or have low viscosity, when agitated or stirred, but setups slightly when standing still; the ability of a material to thicken on standing but to regain flow with agitation.

thread
(1) an individual mesh strand, fiber, or filament; (2) to feed web material through the various stations of an inline screen printing press, and onto the rewind mechanism; (3) fine cord of natural or synthetic material made from two or more filaments twisted together and used for stitchery.

thread contour
the shape of a thread in cross section observed along the major axis.

thread count
a measure of how closely woven a fabric or mesh is, determined by the number of warp and weft threads per square centimeter or square inch; the number of threads per linear unit of measure.

thread diameter
the measurement across the center of a thread, strand of fiber, or filament.

three-color process
a method of reproduction similar to four-color process except that the black printer is omitted.

three-dimensional press
a printing press capable of printing round, oval, or square containers and a variety of irregular shapes.

three-point lay
refer to register guide.

three-point system
method for controlling tonal range in halftone photography; specifying highlight, shadow, and midtone dots on a tone reproduction.

three-quarter automatic
refers to an automated press where substrate feeding is done manually, but printing and substrate removal functions are automatic.

three-roll mill
grinding equipment with three rollers used to homogeneously prepare glass and ceramic powder mixtures with a medium.

three-step overdyeing
a process of dyeing, overdyeing, and stone washing garments to get a two-tone splotchy design.

threshold
a value to which a signal is compared when transforming from a multilevel value to a binary value. (In binary scan, parts of the image below the threshold record as black, while the part above the threshold record as white).

threshold limit value (TLV)
the airborne concentration level of a substance that below which no adverse health affects are observed. (TLV’s may be measured over an 9-hour workday/40-hour work week (TWA), or during a 15-minute average exposure (STEL); an exposure level under which most people can work consistently for 8 hours a day, day after day, with no harmful effects.

tie dye
process where designs are created by tying the garment up with rubber bands or string into various configurations and applying dye to the garment to create multicolored patterns.

tick mark
refer to crop mark.

TIFF
acronym for tagged image file format; a common format for interchanging digital information, generally associated with grayscale and bitmap data.

tight pick
a weft thread that had been woven under excessive tension, causing puckering of the mesh.

tight release
the level of adhesion between a release liner and the adhesive in a pressure sensitive material when the liner is difficult to remove.

tiling
the process of breaking down an image or page into sections for editing or printing purposes.

time and temperature control
a method of controlling the development of photographic film at a given time and temperature.

tinctorial strength (tint strength)
the relative ability of a pigment or dye to impart color to a printing ink.

tin lead plating
the union of connections in a printed circuit by coating with a thin layer of solder, a tin/lead alloy to form a electrical conductor across the connection.

tint
(1) a color or hue made lighter by adding white to the color; a degree of color lighter than normal; (2) a large area of specified dot size such as a 50% tint is a large area of exclusively 50% dots.

tinter
a concentrated color-base that is added to an ink in relatively small amounts to alter its color.

tinting
means of applying shading or special effects to artwork.

tinting strength
the color intesity of an ink determined by the amount of white ink that can be added and still produce a light shade of the original color.

tissue overlay
a thin translucent paper placed over artwork for production or to indicate instructions, corrections, or color breaks.

titanium dioxide (TiO2)
a brilliant white powder used as an opaque white pigment derived from titanium ore.

TIV
acroynm for theoretical ink volume.

TL-9000
quality system requirements for suppliers to the telecommunications industry.

TLV
acroymn for threshold limit value.

TLV-PPM
acroynm for threshold limit value — parts per million.

TLV-STEL
acroymn for threshold limit value – short term exposure limit.

TLV-TWA
acroymn for threshold limit value – time weighted average.

toggle
the act of switching back and forth from one file or display to another to compare two images.

tolerance
the amount of allowable deviation from exact, original specifications; a permissible deviation.

toluene (toluol)
most powerful hydrocarbon solvent with a KB value of 105; an aromatic solvent of the ring hydrocarbon group most commonly used as a solvent for many synthetic resins and as thinner for coatings made from synthetic resins.

tonal range
(1) the entire area covering highlights, shadows, and all intermediate tones in a halftone; (2) the density difference of continuous tone images on either paper or film.

tonal resolution
the number of bits per pixel used in the digital representation of an image.

tone
(1) a degree of color made darker than the original hue by adding its complementary or black; (2) the degree of lightness or darkness in any given area of a print; (3) color created when gray is added to a pure hue; a hue or color blended with gray, also refer to shade.

tone compression
a reduction in the density range of photographic material in order to match printing conditions, and improve reproducibility.

tone/line conversion
refer to line conversion.

tone line technique
a process that converts continuous tone images into line reproductions that resemble pen and ink drawings.

tone curves
a representation of the tonal range of an image showing the progress from black to white. Some image editors allow these to be adjusted for fine tuning of the image.

tone reproduction curve
a graph depicting the relationship between the densities of the original and the corresponding densities of a printied reproduction.

toner
(1) a highly concentrated pigment and/or dye used to modify the hue or color strength of a printing ink; also refer to tinter.

toner, monocomponent
a toner that does not require a carrier used in magnetic printing.

tongue (tab)
a piece of cardboard that projects from the edge of a display part for locking it into place when setting up.

ton, long
refer to long ton.

ton, metric
refer to metric ton.

ton, short
refer to short ton.

tooth
(1) the surface quality of a paper that causes it to accept ink; (2) a slightly rough finish.

topcoat
a coating applied to the surface of inkjet and other substrates to enhence ink adhesion, control dot gain, drying time, and moisture resistance.

top coated film
polyester film that has been coated on the print side to increase ink receptivity and adhesion.

top frame
the printing head assembly of a flat bed press that houses various sub-assembly parts such as the squeegee, flood bar, screen holding device, and off-contact / peel-off mechanisms.

torr
a unit of pressure equal to 1.316 x 10-3 atmosphere.

torsion
stress induced by twisting action.

touch up
the process of making corrections as in opaquing pinholes or defects in negatives and positives or adding final minor corrections to artwork, making corrections, or spotting pinholes in printing screens.

touch plate
the use of an additional screen to produce a special color, fluorescent, or white.

toughness
the relative ability of an ink, coating, or other material to resist cracking on impact.

tower ager
a structure consisting of a vertical chamber where screen printed cloth may be festooned from rods at the top for aging or heat curing, and a means of introducing steam or dry heat into the chamber.

tower easel
an easel for supporting very heavy displays.

toxic chemical
a chemical that has demonstrated a potential to cause death, cancer, or genetic defects through exposure to living organisms.

Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)
enacted by Congressin 1976 to give EPA the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States.

toxicity
(1) the degree or intensity of virulence of a substance judged to be harmful to humans; (2) property of being harmful or poisonous.

toxicity rating
measurement used to determine toxic levels of substances, expressed as threshold limit value in parts per million (TLV-PPM).

Toyo
(1) a Japanese ink manufacturing company; (2) an alternative color matching system to Pantone Color Matching (PMS) called Toyo Color Finder.

Toyo 88 Color Finder
color matching system that contains more than 1000 colors mixed from eleven basic colors, five additive colors, and three specialty (metallic, fouorescent, and pearlescent) ink.

TP
acroynm for thermoplastic.

tpc
abbreviation for threads per centimeter.

tpi
abbreviation for threads per inch.

TQM
acroynm for total quality management.

TR
acroymn for total resistance of an electronic component.

TR limits
minimum and maximum allowable deviation of an electronic component from nominal value.

trace
the conductive path of current in a membrane switch.

traceability
the ability to determine history, application, or location of an item or activity by means of recorded identification.

tracing
the transferring of an image by placing a transparent sheet over it and pencilling the outlines on the transparent sheet.

tracking
(1) the degree of lateral movement of a belt such as a conveyor on a belt dryer; (2) the adjustment of overall spacing between all text characters in a word or words.

trademark
a name, symbol, or other identifying mark registered and legally restricted to the use of a specific owner or manufacturer.

trade name
identifies the name of a product or service of a manufacturer or distributor as it is known to the trade.

trade secret
any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information or compilation of information that is used in an employer’s business, and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors.

train
the moving area or zone of a printing screen that immediately follows the contact zone of the squeegee with the substrate, and precedes the release area determined by the off-contact distance and screen tension. (The train is the often visible part of the printing screen which adheres to the substrate temporarily prior to snap-off).

transfer adhesive
a powdered/granular adhesive that is dusted on a wet plastisol transfers to increase adhesion properties.

transfer adhesive sandwich
pressure sensitive adhesive coated between release liners with a release differential, so that the release liners can be peeled away successively for application of the adhesive alone to a substrate.

transfer film
an indirect type photosensitive stencil film; refer to indirect printing screen.

transfer ink
(1) ink that serves as the vehicle for sublimable dye that permits the dye to be printed onto a transfer paper for subsequent transfer to fabric; (2) plastisol ink designed for use with heat transfer process.

transfer paper
a wide variety of papers on which a design is printed and which acts as a temporary carrier of the design until permanently attached to a substrate.

transfer rate
speed at which data can be transferred expressed in kilo bytes per second (Kbps) or bytes per second (Bps).

transfer stencil
refer to indirect stencil.

transfer tape
(1) a pressure sensitive adhesive unsupported, applied to a two-sided release liner; (2) medium tack adhesive coated on translucent paper.

transmission densitometer
refer to densitometer, transmission.

transistor
a solid state active device made of semi-conductor material such as silicon or germanium, used to control, amplify, or boost electrical current.

translucent
the property of a material to allow the passage of some light rays in a diffused manner.

transmittance
to pass light through a substrate.

transmittance scale
a measure of light passing through a material, interpreted on a percentage scale of 0 to100, reading the reverse of percentage dot area.

transparency
(1) a film positive, either black and white or in color; (2) a printed piece on clear or transparent sheeting with transparent or translucent ink for backlighting in a display; (3) a positive image on photographic color film; (4) a manually produced design on transparent sheeting.

transparent acetate
a clear plastic sheet made of cellulose acetate.

transparent base
a semi-paste compound used as an ink additive to make the ink/base mixture less sticky or tacky, and to improve the release of the print from the printing screen.

transparent flap
refer to overlay.

transparent ink (translucent ink)
printing ink that permits the passage of light with minimal diffusion, so the reflecting design or object can be identified; a printing ink that does not conceal the color beneath, allows under colors to be seen.

transparent label
a pressure sensitive label whose face material adhesive and protective coatings transmit light, so objects may be seen through it.

trap
an area of overlapping ink where two differeny colors of ink meet.

trapping of ink
the property of a printing ink that makes it possible to superimpose one color on another, used to obtain a third color, a combination, or to hide the first by overprinting the second with an opaque color.

travel
the distance between a shorting pad and the circuit layer in circuit board construction.

traveling thermocouple
a long thermocouple design to run through a dryer or lehr to determine the temperature curve established by variances in different zones.

tray
a shallow, rectangular processing container for holding photographic chemicals.

trend chart
a simple graph where a particular variable is plotted over time; also refer to r chart.

triadic harmony
three colors spaced equally about a color wheel.

trial proof
prints made prior to obtaining the desired quality of reproduction.

triboelectricity
static electricity created by friction.

tribology
(1) the mechanism of friction, lubrication, and wear of intersecting surfaces that are in relative motion; (2) the science of friction; (3) abrasion testing technology.

trichlorethylene
a solvent that does not attack metals in the presents of moisture, used in degreasing of metals prior to coating.

trichloroethane,1,1,1
a chlorinated solvent used in some fluid mixtures for the removing ink stains from garments.

trichromatic printing
a process where a full color reproduction is obtained using three colors such as magenta, yellow, and cyan, which are the tri-colors.

triethylene glycol
the low volatility of this ether-alcohol makes it adaptable as a plasticizer for resins.

trilinear scanner
a scanning device that uses three linear array change coupled devices utilizing red, green, and blue filters to capture color scans in a single pass.

trim
to remove unwanted edges of a print by cutting.

trim size
the final size of a print after trimming.

triple rinsed
empty containers that have been flushed of residue three times, each time using a volume of dilutants at least equal to ten percent of the container’s capacity.

trisodium phosphate
a relatively inexpensive chemical with mild caustic action used in some household cleaners and in cleaning and degreasing printing screen mesh — no longer used in the industry because of wastewater contamination.

tristimulus
of or relating to values giving the amounts of the three colored lights, or receptors, red, green, and blue.

tristimulus colorimeter
an instrument that measures tristimulus values and converts them to chromaticity components of color.

tristimulus value
the value of the three references or matching stimuli required to produce a match with the object color stimulus, in a given trichromatic system.

tritone
an image reproduced using three colors.

troy weight
a system of units of weight where the grain is the same as in the avoirdupois system and a pound contains 12 ounces, 240 pennyweights, or 5760 grains.

Trumatch
developed in 1991, color matching system that uses digital technology to specify colors within desktop illustration and page layout software.

truevision advanced raster graphics adapter (TARGA)
a graphic expansion board and type of file format for exchanging 24-bit color files.

TS
abbreviation for tensile strength; acroynm for thermoset plastic.

TSCA
acroynm for Toxic Substances Control Act (US).

tube light source
exposing unit made with black light (or other) fluorescent tubes.

tumbling
the coating of parts by placing them in a rotating cylinder with inner vanes, along with the coating material.

tung oil (China wood oil)
a yellow brownish oil obtained from the seeds of a tung tree and used as a drying agent in varnishes and inks.

tunsten lamp
an incandescent electric bulb with a tungsten filament, 3200 Kelvin, an orange color.

tunnel
the passageway in a dryer or lehr through which printed goods pass on a conveyor belt.

turbidimeter
a device that measures the amount of suspended solids in a liquid.

turbidity
loss of transparency of an ink or coating due to diffusion created by the presence of particulate matter.

turn table
a revolving index table for feeding flat or three-dimensional objects into an automated screen printing press.

turpentine
a colorless, volitale oil, obtained by distilling the oleoresin of coniferous trees, used as cleaning solvent and as additive for ink and varnish mixtures.

turpentine, gum
a volatile oil obtained by distilling the resin extracted by tapping living pine trees,and who’s main constituent is Pinene.

turpentine, steam distilled
a solvent produced by extracting the resin from fallen pines and stumps using a solvent.

turret
refer to base chuck.

tusche
a black or very dark gray waxy substance that repels water, used to manually draw design on the screen printing mesh to make a printing screen.

tusche-glue printing screen
a printing screen made manually by drawing desired design on the mounted, properly stretched screen printing mesh with tusche, squeegeeing a coating of water soluble glue on one side, then dissolving the tusche with mineral spirits. (The tusche having been placed where the stencil is to print, it is then washed out leaving the open stencil design). No longer used in the industry.

TW
acroynm for twill weave.

tweaking
to make minor adjustments.

twenty-four (24) sheet poster (billboard)
larger outdoor poster, approximately 277 x 605 cm (109 x 238 inches), usually consisting of 10 sheets or less; refer to poster paper.

twill weave (TW)
a pattern of weave where threads are woven over one and under two. (The area in which one thread crosses over two threads is called a float).

twist
spiral turns about an axis per unit length for textile strand, expressed in turns per centimeter or inch.

two-package system
epoxy composition for screen printing or coating where the catalyst is packaged separately for mixing just prior to use.

two-part (two-pack)
ink system that requires the addition of a catalyst agent that activates curing.

two-point system
in halftone photography, a method for specifying the highlight and shadow dots on a gray scale; also refer to three-point system.

two-pot system
ink or coating where two reactive components are mixed just prior to use; refer to catalyzed system.

tympan
a makeready oil, chemical, and ink resistant packing paper manufactured in calipers from 0.003 to 0.15 inches.

type
a group of characters used to form a descriptive word.

type body size
the height of the type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender expressed in points.

type gauge
a printer’s measurement tool calibrated in picas and points.

type high
0.918 inches (23.32 mm), the standard in letterpress.

typical error
an inaccuracy within plus or minus one standard deviation of the nominal specified value, as computed from the total population.

typo
abbreviation for typographical error; an error in the typeset copy.

typography
the art and craft of creating and/or setting type; the design and planning of printed matter.

Tyvek
trademark Du Pont for material that is a spunbonded structure of high density olefin fibers.

u
abbreviation for unit.
uc
abbreviation for uppercase.

UCA
acroynm for undercolor addition

UCC
acroynm for Uniform Commercial Code; acroynm for Universal Copyright Convention.

UCR
acroynm for undercolor removal.

UCS
acroynm for uniform color space.

UF
acroynm for urea formaldehyde.

UL
acroynm for Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (US).

ULPA
ultra low particulate air filter for filtering 0.1 micron particles and larger.

ULT
abbreviation for ultimate.

UOM
acroynm for unit of measure.

UP
acroynm for unsaturated polyester.

UR
acroynm for urethane (polyurethane).

USEPA (EPA)
acroynm for United States Environmental Protection Agency.

USGPO
acroynm for United States Government Printing Office.

ultimate adhesion
the maximum adhesion strength attainable from a pressure sensitive adhesive after 72 to 96 hours of application.

ultimate strength
the maximum stress a material is capable of withstanding under a specified load or tension; stress at moment of rupture.

ultramarine blue
a natural or synthetic inorganic pigment with slight red cast, good fade resistance, fair transparency, poor resistance to acids.

ultrasonic bonding
joining of plastic by vibratory mechanical pressure at ultrasonic frequencies (18 to 50 kHz).

ultraviolet curing
(1) the process of polymerization; (2) a reaction initiated by the presence of ultraviolet light; (3) the use of ultraviolet radiation to convert a wet coating or ink into a solid film.

ultraviolet drying system
any system that utilizes ultraviolet radiation to effect the drying or curing of an ink, coating, or adhesive.

ultraviolet inhibitor
various additives put onto fiber or on fabrics to reduce the harmful effects of the sun.

ultraviolet light
highly energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum of rays falling between 200 and 400 nanometers that are shorter than the wavelengths of visible light.

ultraviolet radiation
the range of electromagnetic radiation (200 to 400 nanometers) that is outside the visible spectrum.

ultraviolet stabilizer
a chemical compound or specific type of formulation designed to absorb ultraviolet rays and prevent them from attacking a thermoplastic resin.

µm
symbol for micron.

umber
a brown variety of iron oxide pigment.

unbleached
a light brown paper manufactured with unbleached pulp; kraft paper.

uncoated
a paper without mineral applications or clay coating.

underbase
in textile printing, the first color down on a dark garment, designed to provide an opaque base for subsequent colors.

undercolor removal (UCR)
a technique used to reduce the yellow, magenta, and cyan dot percentages in neutral tones by replacing them with an increased amount of black.

undercutting
unwanted exposure of photosensitive material beyond the limits of the positive image by slanted or reflected light rays; also refer to halation.

underdeveloped
a photographic film developed for less than the recommended time or in an exhausted developer solution.

underexposed
film or emulsion that has been exposed for less than the recommended time, or at full time with a weak light source, or with a light source that is positioned too far away.

underfeeding
the feeding of a cylinder die cutting press on top of the steel rule die.

underglaze
a ceramic finish applied directly on the bisque ware and subsequently covered with a glaze.

underglaze ink
screen printing enamel for ceramic and glass decorating that is combined with a flux to impart color or design to the bisque ware, with the glaze being applied over the enamel and then fired.

underlay
stitches applied prior to other design elements to neutralize fabric or create special design effects.

under-run
a condition where the number of acceptable prints in a production run is less than the number specified by the customer.

undertone
the appearance of an underlying color tone in a thin ink film on white background or when viewed by transmitted light.

undertrapping
condition where the first color printed shows through an overprinted color that is intended to hide it, or where the background color is visible where the colors meet.

Underwriters Laboratory Inc. (US)
an independent testing laboratory that establishes standards for commercial and industrial electric products and their safety.

uniform color scale
a scale where the units of color difference are separated by nearly equal distances.

uniform color space (UCS)
three dimensional space where all pairs of color judged to be equally different are separated by nearly equal distances.

uniform commercial code (UCC)
a set of legal statutes adopted in the United States to provide consistent and uniform laws for conducting business.

uniformity
without variation or fluctuation; consistant color reproduction and quality from print to print.

Universal Copyright Convention
gives protection to authors or originators of text, photographs, or illustrations to prevent use without permission or acknowledgement.

universal product coding (UPC)
a system of marking merchandise in inventory so that prices or articles can be read by electronic data processing equipment; also referred to as bar coding.

universal screen key device
in halftone photography, a device to determine correct screen distances when exposing through a glass screen.

universal trademark
a non-copyrighted mark used in advertising or business.

unsaturation
in a UV curable formulation, a double-bond in a molecule that reacts to free radicals.

unsharp
a negative, positive, or highlight mask made photographically that has less definition than the maximum; an out-of-focus image made to soften abrupt gradations.

unsharp mask
a sharpening process that first blurs the edges then subtracts the image from the blurred areas to yield a image of enhanced sharpness.

unstable film
a photographic or plastic film that is dimensionally affected by environmental influences such as heat and humidity.

unwind
the first section of a web screen printing press, where the substrate is wound off of a roll and fed into the first printing station.

up-and-down press
a press used for cutting very tough stock and/or for embossing.

urethane
a versatile type of plastic material that can be manufactured into a flexible or rigid sheet, a coating, an ink, or adhesive.

US scale system
a method of evaluating camera lens aperture settings. (The system is no longer used, but older lenses have the markings: 1=f4; 2=f5.6; 4=f8; 8=f11; 16=f16; 32=f22; 64=f32; 128=f45 and 256=f64. Thus each lens opening marked in either system gives twice the exposure of the preceding lens opening).

UV
acroynm for ultraviolet light.

UV ink
a screen printable ink that contains an activator that causes polymerization under exposure to a ultraviolet light source.

UV resistance
to counteract fading under direct sunlight or other UV light source.

V
acroynm for volt; velocity.
VAC
acroynm for volts alternating current.

vacuum
(1) air evacuation system that creates suction between a substrate and the printing base to hold the substrate in position during printing; (2) air removal system to draw heat softened plastic sheets to mold or die for forming.

vacuum back
the top or back of a process camera that includes a suction device to hold photographic paper or film in place during exposure.

vacuum forming
a technique for thermal shaping a flat plastic sheet into a 3-D shape by heating the sheet until flexible and then withdrawing air from between the heated sheet and a mold or die.

vacuum frame
a suction device for holding copy and reproduction material in contact during exposure.

vacuum holes
the holes in a forming mold, printing base, or printing frame through which air is exhausted.

vacuum metallizing
a technique for depositing a very thin film of metal on a substrate to produce a metallic foil appearance on its surface.

vacuum table
a flat printing base with a series of holes drilled in its bed for use with an air evacuation system for holding down a substrate during printing.

valley printing
(1) printing concave parts; (2) printing within a depression or surface that is below the highest level of an object such as the inside of a bowl.

value
the relative lightness or darkness of a color measured against a neutral gray scale (ranges from 0 for pure black to 10 for pure white).

value scale
a complete range of values from black to white.

vapor
the gaseous state of any substance that under normal conditions is liquid or solid.

vapor density
(1) the weight of a vapor compared to air; (If less than 1.0 vapor rises, if greater than 1.0 vapor will settle to floor); (2) the relative density or weight of a material in its vapor state (with no air present) compared with an equal volume of air at ambient temperature.

vapor permeable
property of allowing a vapor to pass through a material.

vapor phase soldering
a soldering process that uses the latent heat of vaporization of a liquid as its energy source.

vapor pressure
the outward pressure of a mass of a given vapor at a specified temperature, used as an indicator of volatility, expressed in mm of Hg at 20 degrees C.

variable
a quantity or condition that tends to vary; having no fixed quantitative value.

variable-contrast paper
photographic paper that provides different grades of contrast when exposed through special filters.

variable type gauge
provides a quantitative value for the past characteristic being checked.

variance
a deviation from a job specification or standard.

varnish
(1) a medium in which pigment is ground to make an ink; (2) a thin transparent protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance; (3) a material added to an ink to increase transparency.

varnishing
a process whereby a sheet is coated with a film forming liquid to give a smooth glossy finish.

varnish-on decal
an image designed to be applied to a surface by means of a coating of varnish applied just prior to placement.

vat dyes
synthetic organic dyes in paste or powder form.

VDA 6.1
Verband de Automobilindustric, a quality system requirement for suppliers to German automakers.

VDE
acroynm for Verband Deutacher Elektrotechniker in Germany.

vector
(1) a graphic drawing specified as a color; (2) a mathmatical description of an image and its placement.

vector file
an electronic file that describes geometric shapes and dimensions in terms of coordinates or other symbols.

vector graphics
drawing software.

vector image
a computer image that uses mathmatical descriptions of paths and fills to define the graphic.

vee lock
a display lock used in shaping light weight stock.

vegetable parchment
a grease and water resistant paper made by passing unsized paper through sulfuric acid to gelatinize the surface.

vehicle
the fluid portion of printing ink that acts as a carrier for the pigment and enables it to flow.

veiling
gold and organic colors applied to glass in a threadlike texture.

Velcro
registered tradename for a brand of hook and loop fabric fasteners.

vellum
a fine parchment made from treated calf, lambskin, or kid skin used as a writing material; (2) a heavy off-white fine-quality paper resembling this parchment.

vellum finish
a toothy finish that is absorbent for fast ink penetration.

vellum glaze
a semi-matte glaze having a satin-like appearance.

veloc
abbreviation for velocity.

Velox
Kodak tradename for high contrast photographic paper; a photographic print made from a halftone negative, or from a continuous tone negative through a halftone screen.

vent
a small opening placed in a mold to allow air to exit as the molding material enters.

ventilation
to circulate fresh air into an area to replace stale air.

verify
sample sew-out of a new embrodiery design to make sure the pattern is correct.

vermilion
a bright red mineral pigment composed of mercuric sulfide artifically made from a preparation of sulfur and mercury.

verso
the left hand side of a page, book, or cover; the even numbered pages.

vertical ager
refer to tower ager.

vertical camera
a camera where the film holder, lens, and other head components are positioned directly above the copy board.

VHAP
acroynm for volatile hazardous air pollutant.

vibrating colors
contrasting colors of the same value placed side by side causing an apparent vibration or jump between them.

vibrating parts feeder
a device that supplies small parts to a machine single file, all oriented the same way.

vibration flocking
the erection of applied flock fibers by passing the flocked substrate over a beater or vibrator bar.

victoria blue
a clean, red shade organic blue dye or pigment.

view camera (studio camera)
a camera with an adjustable back and the lens board, a film holder section that tilts vertically or horizontally, and a lens board that moves up, down, or to the side for distortion control. (A view camera can be used as a process or copy camera if both the lens and film plane are locked into a center and parallel position).

view file
a low resolution electronic file containg the actual data used to form the final output page.

viewing booth
an enclosed area with controlled lighting for evaluating color proofs and press sheets.

vignette
an image that fades off gradually into the background; a transition from one color or intensity to another.

vignetting
printing the central area of a picture while shading the edge areas gradually into white or black.

vinyl
the univalent chemical radical CH2CH obtained from ethylene; a tough flexible synthetic thermoplastic; also referred to as polyvinylchloride.

vinyl ink
an ink designed for use on vinyl films, usually solvent-based.

virgin mesh
new screen mesh that has never been used for printing.

visc
abbreviation for viscous.

viscoelastic
characteristic mechanical behavior of some materials that is a combination of viscous and elastic behavior.

viscoelastic ordering
the alignment of stretched chains within a polymer along the axis of deformation, improves the strength of a film along the axis.

viscometer
an instrument for measuring the resistance of a liquid to shear or flow at specified temperature and atmospheric conditions, by measuring the force required to move one layer over another without turbulence; also referred to as viscosimeter.

viscosity
the degree of fluidity, tack, or internal resistance to flow, of a compound ranging between liquid and heavy paste.

viscosity coefficient
the constant of proportionality of the viscous force to the velocity gradient between two parallel Newtonian fluid layers.

visco-spatula
an instrument used with a timing device to measuring ink run-off from one marking to the next.

viscous
a material that is thick; resistant to flow.

visible light transmission
the ratio of the amount of total visible solar energy (370 to 780 namometers) that is allowed to pass through a filter, to the amount of total solar energy falling on the filter.

visible spectrum
the region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 380 and 720 nanometers.

vitreous enamel
an enamel that requires fusion at high temperature to form its characteristic hard glossy surface, sometimes referred to as a porcelain enamel.

vitrify
to change into glass by heating.

VM & P
a naphtha of high flash point solvent employed in the manufacture of some inks. (The initials refer to varnish maker’s and painter’s naphtha).

VOC.
acroynm for volatile organic compound.

void
(1) the failure of an ink to completely define a graphic feature; (2) an air bubble that has been entrapped in a plastic part during the molding process; (3) holes containing no matter in a fired film.

voids
holes in a coating film, refer to pinholes.

vol
abbreviation for volume.

volatile
subject to evaporation at a relatively low temperature.

volatile organic compound (VOC)
a liquid solvent that tends to vaporize at room temperature. (High concentrations can be injurious to health).

volatility
the ease that a liquid or solid passes into a vapor state.

volume resistivity
the electrical resistance between the opposite faces of a solid volume of insulating material, measured under perscribed conditions using a direct current potential after a specified time of electrification, expressed in ohm/cm; the ratio of the electrical resistance through a cross section divided by the length through which the current flows.

volume shrinkage
the amount of dimensional change during cure.

volumetric dilatancy
a flow characteristic of material that behaves like a solid rather than a fluid, typically having a high solids concentration.

Vth
abbreviation for theoretical ink volume.

vulcanization
in plastics, a chemical reaction where the physical properties of an elastomer are changed by causing it to react with sulfur or other cross-linking agent; (2) ceramics, the formation of a liquid phase that upon cooling becomes a glass bonding matrix.

W
abbreviation for watt; work.
w
abbreviation for wide, width, or weight.

wales
the vertical rows of loops on knitted material.

walk-in oven
a heat chamber for thermal treating of printed parts by convection heat, large enough in size to accommodate a person.

walking stitch
refer to running stitch.

wall rack
a rack designed to be mounted on a vertical surface.

ware
any glass or ceramic article.

wareholder
chucks or other devices for holding ware during decorating or firing.

warm color
(1) a color that suggests warmth, such as yellow, orange or red hue; (2) in printing a color that is on the reddish side.

warm-up period
time required for a device to reach normal operating temperature or performance following initial start-up.

warp
(1) a twist or distortion; (2) the threads in a woven fabric or mesh that run lengthwise.

warp and weft (warp and woof)
the basic structure of a woven fabric or mesh, the crisscrossing of threads in weaving where the warp threads run lengthwise and the weft threads run crosswise.

warp beam
the roller in the rear of a loom around which the warp is wound.

warpage
dimensional distortion in a plastic object after molding.

wash
to affect color or tint by adding saturation or chroma.

wash out inks
water soluable ink used for printing on textiles and are easily removed by washing.

wash resistance
the degree a printed textile ink withstands washing in detergent solution without affecting color strength or adhesion; (2) able to resist although not completely the penetration of water.

wash-up
the process of removing the residual ink from the screen with a solvent or ink degradent.

waste
unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing or converting processes.

waste can
a container used for safe containment of oily cleaning rags or other flammable soiled items.

waste, commerical
all solid waste emanating from a business establishment.

waste, converting
recycable waste that can be reprocessed.

waste, hazardous
by product that can pose a hazard to human health or the environment when improperly managed.

waste, solid
materials that are disposed of in their original form.

waste stream
the movement of waste from generation to disposal.

wastewater
used water that contains dissolved or solid material.

water absorption
the ratio of the weight of water that has been absorbed by a material to the weight of the material when dry; a percentage of water absorbed by a material when immersed in water for 24 hours.

water based ink
ink containing a vehicle water soluble or water dispersible resin.

waterfall
refer to flow coating.

waterhouse stop
an early form of aperture adjustment in a camera that consists of a metal strip in which a desired size hole is accurately drilled, and the metal strip is inserted in a slot in the process lens barrel to take the place of the usual iris diaphragm.

water-in-oil emulsion
pigments dispersed in a solution of synthetic resin in an organic solvent with water added by high speed mixer or homogenizer.

waterjet cutting
use of a focused stream of water concentrated at pressures of 4350 to 8799 Kpa (30,000 to 60,000 psi) to cut materials.

waterleaf
a paper that absorbs water instantly; a blotter.

watermark
(1) discoloration of ware in firing caused by accumulation of soluble salts during drying; (2) a translucent design mark impressed in paper during manufacturing, visible when held up to a light source.

water miscible
solvents or other liquids that can be stirred into and blended with water.

water pollution
the addition of harmful or objectionable material causing an alteration of water quality.

waterproof
a fabric whose pores have been closed not allowing water to pass through.

water quality standards
limits on concentration of the components of water based on the proposed use for that water.

water reactive
a chemical substance or mixture that reacts with water to release heat or gas that is flammable, highly toxic, or toxic.

water repellent
a fabric that has been treated with a finish that caused material to shed water, but are still air permeable.

water resistance (water repellent)
resistant to water but not entirely waterproof.

water slide
a decal manufactured faceup that is released from its paper carrier by water and transferred laterally or as a free film onto a substrate.

waterslide transfer
decal that is made to release from the support sheet by water absorption, so they will slide off the support sheet and onto the application surface.

water soluble
having the property of dissolving in water.

water soluble adhesive
any adhesive that dissolves in water.

water spot
an imperfection on exposed and processed photographic film caused by failure to remove excess water before drying.

water vapor transmission
the weight of water vapor transmitted through a material, measured in grams over 24 hour period.

water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)
the rate of water vapor transmission through a material.

water wet test
a method of testing surface treatment on polyolefins.

watt
a unit of electrical power; one watt is equivalent to the power represented by one ampere of current with a pressure of one volt in DC circuit or one absolute joule per second and equal to 1/746 horsepower.

wave
a physical activity that rises and falls periodically as it travels through a media.

wavelength
(1) a measuring unit to determine hue, color, or position in the color spectrum; (2) the distance between corresponding points on two successive waves of light or sound.

wave solder
process of soldering thru hole printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies.

wavy edges
a condition in paper where the exposed edges absorb moisture at a different rate than the body of the sheet in a pile causing the edges to have a ripple appearance.

wayfinding
the ability of a person to find his or her way to a given destination in an emergency.

weatherability
the ability of a material to resist color change, disintegration, wear, or other adverse affects of exposure to weather.

weathering
(1) to undergo change as disintegration or discoloration from exposure to weather; (2) the degree of attack on a material by atmospheric conditions.

weatherometer
a device or machine for testing weatherability of materials under simulated weather conditions.

weave
pattern in which a fabric or mesh is woven.

weave marks
refer to mesh marks.

web
a continuous roll of pliable material.

webbing
fine filament produced by the ink between the screen mesh and substrate being printed, exhibiting a cobweb like appearance on the finished print.

web fed
(1) an automatic feeding system where material is fed from a continuous roll, synchronized to a stop motion arrangement that stops movement for printing; (2) a type of printing press that feeds the substrate from a bulk roll or bolt.

web guide
device that keeps the web traveling straight through the press.

web lead
a continuous strip of material extending from a supply roll, over rollers, and through printing unit to take-up roll.

web tension
the controlled tightness or looseness of a web material during transport through the press or other inline operation.

wedging
a buildup of coating material at the edge of the substrate

weed
the disposable portion of a material after finishing; that portion of a die cut sheet that is waste; refer to matrix.

weft
the horizontal threads or fibers that are carried in the shuttle; the threads or fibers that run from selvage to selvage; also called woof.

weftwise printing
the printing of cloth in a direction across the width of the web, or at a 90-degree angle to the selvage edge.

weight (fabric)
the heaviness of a fabric expressed in grams per linear meter (ounces per yard).

weight per gallon
the weight of any liquid determined by multiplying the weight of a gallon of distilled water (8.33 lbs) by the specific gravity of the liquid.

weir
a notch in the top of a photo processing tank for measuring flow.

welding
the joining of thermoplastic material by heat or chemical action.

well
the area between the inside of the frame and the stencil at the front and back of the screen; also referred to as inkwell.

well side of the screen
the side of a printing screen where the ink is placed for printing; also called print side; also see print side.

wet crock
the tendency of a waterbased ink film to lose pigment when abraded with a wet cloth; also refer to crocking.

wet etchible resists
resist inks that can be printed and etched without the intermediate step of drying the ink film.

wet exposure method
the technique of subjecting photosensitive materials to light while in a wet state.

wet film thickness
the depth, expressed in mils, of an applied coating measured immediately after application.

wet flexural strength (WFS)
the flexural strength after water immursion usually after boiling the test specimen for two hours in water.

wet grinding
pulverizing color pigment and other material in a ball mill in the presence of enough liquid to form a slurry.

wet method
a process of preparing carbon tissue for screen printing plates, where the carbon tissue is exposed while it is in a wet or damp state.

wet-on-wet
the printing of multiple colors onto an aborbent substrate before the previously printed colors have dried.

wet printing (trapping ink)
the process of printing a color over a previously printed color that is still wet, to form an intermediate color, or to print two separate colors.

wet rub resistance
the resistance of a wet surface of a coated or uncoated paper or paperboard to resist rubbing or scuffing.

wet sample
a small quantity of a wet ink that is stored for future reference.

wet scrub resistance
the ability of an ink to withstand scrubbing in contact with water.

wet scrubber
air pollution control device involving the wetting of particles in the air stream and the impingement of wet or dry particles on collecting surfaces followed by flushing.

wet scrub resistance
the ability of an ink to withstand scrubbing in contact with water.

wet-strength paper
(1) a type of paper designed and made for the production of outdoor posters that accepts printing and has a high tear resistance when wet with poster paste during hanging; (2) a material’s ability to retain a proportion of its dry strength even when wet; (3) a paper that maintains at least 15% of its dry tensile strength when wet with water.

wettability
the relative affinity of a liquid for a surface, measured by the contact angle formed between the liquid and the surface. (If the constant angle is zero complete wettability occurs. If the contact angle is greater than 90 degrees the condition is one of non-wettability).

wettability tester
an instrument used to calculate surface energy or adhesion tension by using the contact angle as a measurement of adhesion wetting of liquids to solid surfaces.

wet tensile strength
the ability of a material to function under conditions of high moisture content.

wetting
the ability to adhere to a surface immediately upon contact.

wetting agent
(1) a chemical additive that reduces the surface tension of a fluid, inducing it to spread readily on a surface to which it is applied; (2) to additive to aid in the dispersion of pigment particles.

wetting up
the process of placing ink in the printing screen and making one or more printing strokes with the squeegee to distribute the ink evenly before beginning the actual production run.

wet web tester
instrument used to predict wet and dry sheet strengths of paper.

wf
abbreviation for wrong font.

WFS
acroynm for wet flexural strength.

WH
abbreviation for watt hour.

whirler
a turning device designed for the rotating of a coated printing screen while the coating is drying, aids in producing an even film coating.

whiskering
thin scraps of the base material that cling to the die-cut edges of a part.

white
(1) the pressence of all colors; (2) the visual perception produced by light where each wavelength has the same relative intensity in the visisble range as sunlight; (3) the result of combining equal amounts of the additive colors red, green, and blue.

white balance
the balancing of colort components to create pure white when scanning a white object.

white light
visual sensation that results when the wavelegths between 400 and 700 nanometers are combined in nearly equal proportions; light that emits all wavelengths of the visible spectrum at uniform intensity.

whitepoint
(1) on a monitor, the combination of all three red, green, and blue phosphors at full intensity as measured by its color temperature in Kelvin, a necessary reference point in calibration and characterization; (2) scanned color that produces 255,255,255 in an 8-bit scanner, ideally 100% neutral reflectance or transmittance.

white space
the area in print matter that is not covered by type, design, or illustration.

white vinegar
a common form of 5 percent acetic acid.

whiteware
ware having a white or ivory body when fired.

WIC
acroynm for workplace identification code.

wick
the characteristic of some fibers to absorb moisture while others do not.

wicket dryer
a conveyorized system of wire forms, trays, or racks designed to hold sheet substrates in an angled position while drying.

wicking
(1) the bleeding of ink or ink additives into surrounding garment fibers; (2) moisture on the surface of the fabric that is not absorbed by the fibers; (3) tendency of moisture to spread on a surface; (4) the drawing up of a liquid by capillary action.

wide-angle lens
a photographic lens with a shorter focal length and a wider field of view.

window
the limits of a material within which a reactive process can take place.

wiper
the physically movable contact part of a variable resistance component, usually a metal blade that is slideable along the fixed resistor surface.

wiping
the process of cutting the ink that has been pressed into the mesh apertures, and simultaneously clearing the top surface of the mesh of excess ink.

wire cloth
a woven material of metal threads used for screen mesh; also refer to metal screen mesh.

wire mark
an impression in paper from the machine wire or dandy roll of the paper machine.

wire mesh
refer to wire cloth, metal screen mesh.

wire screen
a printing screen made with woven metal fibers.

wire side
that side of a paper sheet or web that is contacted by the wire of the paper machine during manufacture; the grain side of a sheet; also refer to felt side.

wire stitch
refer to saddle stitch.

with grain
in a direction consistent with the machine direction during manufacture.

wmk
abbreviation for watermark.

woodcut
a printing form where the image has been carved in relief in wood.

woof
refer to weft.

work and tumble
to print one side of a substrate, then turn the substrate over from gripper to back using the same side guide to print the second side.

work and turn
to print one side of a substrate, then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side.

work harden
a process of stabilizing the tension of a mesh by use and retensioning.

working head of ink
the portion of ink on top of the printing screen that is pushed ahead of the squeegee on the printing stroke.

working life
refer to pot life.

working proof
trial print that is marked up to show changes that need to be made prior to production run.

working range
the viscosity range where molten glass can be formed.

working standard
a unit of measurement calibrated from either a primary or secondary standard that is used to calibrate other devices or make comparison measurements.

woven fabric
material made of two sets of threads with the warp running lengthwise and the weft threads running perpendicular.

wrap-around
a screen printed design that extends around the substrate of cylindrical shape.

wrinkling
(1) the puckering or creasing of a pliable material that occurs during printing; (2) an uneven ink surface formed during drying.

wrong-reading
an image that is backwards from the original.

wt
abbreviation for weight.

WVTR
acroynm for water vapor transmission rate.

WYSIWYG
acroynm for what you see is what you get.

X
(1) one of the three CIE tristimulus values, the red primary; (2) spectral color matching functions of the CIE Standard Observer used for calculating the X tristimulus value; (3) one of the CIE chromaticity coordinates; (4) power of magnification; (5) algebraic value.
x
(1) abbreviation for abscissa in mathmatics; (2) symbol for power of magnification.

X-25
an international standard protocol for connecting computers and other data communication devices to packet switched networks.

X-Acto knife
a cutting tool used for cutting copy, film, paper and making materials.

x-axis
the horizonal line axis of a three dimensional coordinate system.

x-cordinate
the horizontal location of data on a graph, display monitor, or page layout.

xenon
colorless, orderless, gas used in a gas discharge lamp to produce white light.

xenon lamp
a light source containing xenon gas; usually operated as a pulsed light source, as in a strobe lamp.

xerography
a copying process that utilizes a selenium surface and electrostatic faces to form an image.

x-height
the height of the lowercase letters of a type face that do not have ascenders or decenders.

x-line (mean line)
a line that marks the tops of lowercase letters without ascenders.

x-ray analysis
the passage of X-rays through a sample to obtain a pattern that can be compared with a known pattern for identification of sample composition.

xylene (xylol)
any isomeric hydrocarbon of the benzene series C6H4(CH3)2 obtained from wood and coal tar.

xylography
the process of wood engraving or producting a print from a wood engraving.

x-y-z-theta
a set of vectors referencing the possible directions for moving a screen into register, X and Y are coordinates in the horizontal plane of the screen, Z is a vertical coordinate perpendicular to the screen plane, and Theta is an angular adjustment around the center point of the screen or platen.

Y
(1) symbol for yellow in process reproduction; (2) one of the three CIE trisimulus values, the green primary; (3) spectral color matching function of the CIE Standard Observer used for calculating y stimulus values; (4) one of the CIE chromaticity values.
y
the ordinate in mathmatics.

y2
abbreviation for square yard.

y3
abbreviation for cubic yard.

yard
a measure of length equal to 36 inches or 3 feet and equivalent to 0.9144 meter; abbreviation is yd.

yard, cubic
refer to cubic yard.

yard goods
(1) wide rolls of uncut textile substrate, available in varying length; (2) piece goods.

yard, square
refer to square yard.

yarn
a continuous strand of twisted threads of natural or synthetic material.

yarn distortion
shift in the warp of a fabric due to localized surface tension.

y-axis
the vertical axis of a three dimensional coordinate system.

YCC
A color space developed by Eastman Kodak to define colors by luminance (Y) and two levels of chrominance (C and C).

y-coordinate
the vertical location of data on a graph, display monitor, or page layout.

yd
abbreviation for yard.

yel
abbreviation for yellow.

yellow
(1) one of the subtractive primaries used in process printing with a wavelength of approx 580 nanometers; (2) a pigment or dye having this hue.

yellowing
a defect manifested by a change in color toward a yellowish hue.

yellow light
refer to safelight.

yellow ocher
a yellow pigment usually containing lemonite.

yellow printer
in process color reproduction, the prepress materials used to produce the yellow image. (The letter Y is used to designat this color).

yellow safe film
a blue sensitive film used primarily for contacting that is light safe under yellow light.

yellow sheeting
the transparent yellow plastic or gelatin sheeting through which autopositive film is exposed.

yield point
a point where mesh elastic memory breaksdown and is no longer able to hold tension.

yield strength
refer to yield value.

yield stress (yield point)
the minimum load required to permanently deform a plastic material.

yield value (yield strength)
(1) the flow properties of a printing ink.; (2) lowest stress a material undergoes in plastic deformation. (Below this stress the material is elastic and above it the material is tensile or viscous).

YMC
acroynm for yellow, magenta, cyan in process color reproduction.

YMCK
symbol for yellow, magenta, cyan, and black in process color reproduction.

yoke
the part of a garment fitted closely to the shoulders.

Young-Helmholtz theroy
a color vision theroy that suggests humans percieve color based on messages received from three receptors in the eye (red, green, blue).

Young’s modulus
ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses at less than the proportional limit of the material; also refer to modulus of elasticity.

Yule-Nielsen equation
a modification of the Murray-Davies equation to compensate for light scatter within a substrate when measuring apparent printed dot gain; also refer to Murray-Davies equation.

Z
(1) one of the three CIE tristimulus values, the blue printer; (2) spectral color matching function of the CIE Standard Observer used for calculating the z stimulus value: (3) one of the CIE chromaticity coordinates; (4) symbol for atomic number; (5) electrics — impedance.
z
abbreviation for zero

Zahn cup
an efflux device for measuring the viscosity of an ink. (Viscosity expressed in the number of seconds it takes to empty a cup through a an orifice of deifinite diameter).

z-axis
(1) one of three axes in a three point coordinate system for locating points in space; (2) theoretical line providing a depth reference point; (3) direction perpendicular to fibers in a woven fiber reinforced laminate.

zB
abbreviation for German term zum Beispiel meaning example.

ZFS
acroynm for zinc formaldehyde sulfoxylate.

zero discharge
discharge from a point source that has been determined to contain minimal or no polutants. (A goal set by the U.S. Federal Water Pollution Act of 1972 for attaining total recycling within closed industrial systems by 1985).

zero offset
the difference expressed in degrees between true zero and an indication given by a measuring instrument.

zero suppression
the span of an indicator or chart recorder may be offset from zero (zero suppressed) such that neither limit of the span will be zero. (For example, a temperature recorder that records a 100 degree span from 400 degrees to 500 degrees is said to have 400 degrees zero suppression).

ZIF
acroynm for zero insertion force.

zig-zag
a stitch that progresses in an alternating angle used for final stitching of apparel.

zig-zag fold
refer to fan fold.

zinc formaldehyde sulfoxylate
the chemical that removes the color from a dischargable substrate.

zinc oxide
an opaque inorganic white pigment used in printing ink.

zinc yellow
a yellow pigment consisting of zinc chromate.

zip
to compress a digital file, used to reduce the size of a file to speed up transmission time over the internet.

Zip-A-Tone
trade name for series of screen patterns imprinted on plastic sheets that are used to create tones of various types on artwork.

zip drive
a removable device employing a small disk similar in design to a floppy disk, allows for more storage space and speed.

zomag
special lightweight magnesium alloy used for relief etching.

zoom
making an image or image part become larger than it appears on the original.

zoom-in
to make an image larger.

zoom-out

to make an image smaller.

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~ by Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار on March 28, 2000.

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