Image Dictionary A B C

A= abbreviation for ampere.
a= metric symbol for atto.

AA= abbreviation for “author’s alteration,” denotes a change required from the original copy., also referred to as artist’s correction.

A-stage= an early stage in the reaction of a thermosetting resin where the material is still soluble in certain liquids and fusible, also reference B stage and C stage.

abscissa axis= the x coordinate.

aberration= (1) a disturbance in color that interfere with clarity, typically one of the faults found in interpolated colors; (2) errors in a photographic lens which prevent the lens from producing a single focus of all intensities of the light rays reflected from the subject, resulting in poor image definition at the film plane.

A-board= a double-faced sign with each face mounted on a frame so that the two, with tops lined together and bottom held in separated position with a brace, form an “A” when viewed from the side.

abherent= a substance that prevents adhesion of a material, either to itself or to other materials; a release agent, such as silicone or wax.

abrasion resistance= the inherent ability of a surface to inhibit deterioration or destruction by friction, also referred to as rub resistance.

abrasion test, paper= paper used to determine dry rub, wet rub, wet bleed, smear, and rub qualities, incorporating several types of motion, also used for the testing of surface areas, under a variety of load conditions.

abrasion test, textile= used for testing a specific textile application such as piling, scrub resistance, fabric adhesion, and chalking.

abrasion test, washability= used to determine the scrub resistance, washability, cleanability, and abrasion resistance of coating materials such as waxes, anodized metals, and plastics.

abrasiveness= the tendency of a material or coating to abrade or wear away a surface or an edge.

ABS= an acroynm for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers.

absolute humidity= the actual weight of water vapor contained in a unit weight of air, expressed in grams per cubic meter.

absolute register= high degree of exact size conformity of all image elements with the original or with position on the substrate.

absolute viscosity= a characteristic of one-component liquids which have a constant ratio of shear stress over shear rate (constant viscosity).

absolute white= in theory a material that perfectly reflects all light energy at every visible wavelength; in practice a solid white with known spectral data that is used as the “reference white” for all measurements of absolute reflectance. (When calibrating a spectrophotometer, often a white ceramic plaque is measured and used as the absolute white reference).

absorbance= an index of the light absorbed by a medium compared to the light transmitted through it; numerically, it is the logarithm of the ratio of incident spectral irradiance to the transmitted spectral irradiance, a unitless number. (Absorbance implies monochromatic radiation, although it is sometimes used as an average applied over a specified wavelength range).

absorbency= that property of a porous material such as paper that causes it to take up liquids or vapors (e.g., moisture) with which it is in contact, allowing penetration into its bulk.

AC= abbreviation for author’s correction, also referred to AA; standard acroynm for air conditioning and alternating current; refer to current, alternating.

ACGIH= acroynm for American Conference of Governmental Hygienists.

accelerate= to hasten the natural progress of an event or a series of events such as the addition of a faster drying solvent or increasing the temperature or volume of air to dry the printed surface.

accelerated aging/weathering= laboratory test methodology that simulates long term environmental effects, but at the same time intensify and accelerate the destructive action of natural weathering in an attempt to produce changes in the material similar to those observed after continuous outdoor exposure. (Test involves exposure to artifically produced components of natural weather, light, heat, cold, water vapor, and rain which are controlled and repeated in a given cycle).

accelerator= (1) a substance added, or method used, to hasten the natural progress or process of an event or series of events, such as ink drying; (2) material that when mixed with a catalized resin, will speedup the chemical reaction between the catalyst and resin, either in polymerizing of resin or vulcanization of rubber; also referred to as a promoter.

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)= the maximum number of defects per one hundred units that can be considered to be satisfactory as a process average.

acceptance sampling= the evaluation of a definite lot of material or printed product to determine its acceptability within quality standards.

accessory= supplementary part or equipment, something nonessential but useful.

accordion fold= a series of parallel folds where each fold opens in the opposite direction from the previous fold like the bellows of an accordion.

accurate= without error, precise, exactness to a specific degree or size, true to given dimensions.

accuracy= (1) the deviation of the measured or observed value from the accepted reference; (2) the total of all deviations from a specified straight line; usually the sum of non-linearity, repeatability, and hystersis expressed as a percent of full scale output.

acetal (POM)= a highly crystalline thermoplastic resin polymerized from formaldehyde that is formed from combining aldehydes and alcohol; generic name of polyoxymethylene.

acetate= (1) a plastic synthesized from acetic acid that exhibits rigidity, dimensional stability, and ink receptivity; made from cellulose acetate or its derivitives such as the clear plastic covering placed over artwork; (2) a family of solvents, also known as esters.

acetic acid= an organic acid used in testing acid resistance of a material; photographic, the active ingredient in stop bath or fixing baths.

acetate butyrate= an extruded thermoplastic that can be decorated and heat-formed.

acetone= colorless, highly flammable chemical compound (CH3)2CO used as an organic solvent, an ingredient in many lacquer thinner compounds and adhering liquids; used to remove lacquer adhered knife-cut stencils and lacquer type blockout from screen fabrics.

achromatic color= a neutral color (white, gray, or black that has no hue).

achromatic color reproduction
color separation technique whereby the neutral compound is digitally replaced by a corresponding level of black; also refer to gray component replacement.

achromatic lens= a lens corrected for black and white photography; specifically one that brings visual rays to the same focus.

acid= any substance in an aqueous solution capable of turning litmus indicator red, disolving certain metals to form salts, reacting with base or alkali to form salt, below 7 pH.

acid dye= textile printing color containing salts of organic acids and used for applying color to protein fibers such as silk, wool and polyamides.

acid etching= producing images by using acid and resist materials.

acid fixer (fix) (fixer) (fixing bath)= a chemical solution containing sodium thiosulfate and diluted acetic acid that renders photographic images on film or paper permanent, upon immersion for the prescribed time by removing unexposed silver halides; also refer to hypo.

acid free paper= a paper with no acidity or residual acid producing chemicals.

acid number=a measure of the amount of free acid on a molecule, calculated as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids in one gram.

acid proof (acid resistant=
quality of a material that prevents or lessens the effect of contact or immersion in acid.

acid resist= coating used mainly in printed circuit production that is resistant to etching solutions; also refer to etch resist.

acid stop bath= a photographic solution, generally acetic acid, used for stopping the action of the developer on a photographic positive, negative, film or paper.

acid wash= chemical mechanical process where dye is taken out of a garment, producing a splotchy look that can range from large to a very fine; also referred to as rough cutting a garment.

ACL= acronym for applied color labeling.

ACL lug= a small protrusion or depressed cavity manufactured in containers to act as a guide in positioning decorations; also refer to ramp.

acquire= computer command, typically under “File” menu, that allows the start of scanning software directly from the application. Acquire is only available if the software is TWAIN-compliant.

across grain= a direction that is 90 degrees to the machine grain imposed in the making of paper from fiber; also refer to cross direction.

acrylate= an ester or salt coming from acrylic acid; a type of monomer used in UV ink and coating formulations that contains the chemical group CH2=CHCO2H.

acrylic (PMMA)= (1) thermoplastic resin from polymerization of acrylic or methacrylic acid esters that exhibit fairly high impact strength, rigidity, and compatibility with other plastics; (2) used as base compound in formulating ink and adhesive systems; (3) synthetic fiber created as a substitute for wool, resistant to shrinking, moths, sunlight and chlorine degradation; wool-like hand, machine washable and dryable, excellent color retention.

acrylic based adhesive= a pressure sensitive adhesive based on acrylic polymers.

acrylic emulsion= a water based latex made with acrylic polymers used for coatings and/or impregnating.

acrylic ink= ink containing acrylic polymers used for screen printing on some plastics and other substrates, especially where outdoor exposure is involved.

acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)= a thermoplastic derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene, the strongest of the styrene copolymers and the most widely used.

actinic light= a ray of light that is composed of short wavelengths as found in the ultraviolet and violet areas of the spectrum; capable of changing the properties of photosensitive materials on exposure to the light source.

activate= to accelerate a reaction or increase chemical activity.

activated carbon= a powdered or granular carbon that is highly absorbent, used to remove organic vapors and odors.

activated sludge treatment= a water effluent waste treatment employing forced air to accelerate biodegradation process.

activator= (1) a chemical used to accelerate a reaction or increase chemical activity in another material; (2) in photography, a high pH solution that allows diffusion of the developer into the film emulsion for development of the image.

active component (active devise)= a part or element in an electronic device that controls current or voltage to produce gain, impede or resist flow, or provide switching action in a printed circuit.

active substrate= a substrate or base for an integrated circuit component where parts of the substrate display voltage or current control to accomplish gain, impedance, or switching.

activity= in thermodynamics, the active concentration of a free ion in solution.

actuation force= (1) the amount of pressure necessary to close a membrane switch, measured in grams; (2) the force required to collapse the walls of a rubber keypad, metal, or polyester dome.

acutance= the acute details of shape or sharpness of the edge of a printed line or dot.

acute= a toxic effect that results from a short term exposure to a very high concentration of a toxic substance.

acute effect= the adverse effects that normally are evident immediately, or shortly after exposure to a hazardous material, generally no longer than 14 days.

adaptive compression= A type of compression software commonly used to back up files. The method of compression will change with the type of file, and is not recommended for photographic images because it may destroy original data.

additive= a substance added in small amounts to another to improve desirable qualities or surpress undesirable properties, or otherwise changes the composition to a predetermined state.

additive lamps= a medium pressure mercury vapor UV lamp (arc or microwave) that has small amount of metal halide added to the mercury. (These materials will emit their characteristic wavelengths in addition to the mercury emissions).

additive color matching= process that can specify colors in terms of the three numbers representing the amounts of the three primary lights added together to make a match. (The amounts of the three primaries, expressed in numerical form for each primary and describing the new color, are known as the tri-stimulus values of that color).

additive primary colors= red, green, and light blue; when all additive primaries are combined at 100% intensity, white light is produced; combining at varying intensities produces a gamut of different colors.

addressable resolution= the highest resolution of a printer, scanner, etc. in working with an image, also refer to optical resolution and interpolation.

adherend= any item that is attached to another item or surface by an adhesive.

adhering liquid= a solvent used for attaching lacquer-filled knife-cut stencil film to the screen mesh, usually a blend of lacquer-type solvents.

adhesion= the molecular force of attraction between unlike materials; being united or attached, by a mechanical, chemically, or reactive bond between surfaces causing them to stick together; (adhesion to a smooth surface may rely on polar adhesion).

adhesion buildup= an increase in the peel adhesion value of pressure sensitive tape after it has been allowed to dwell on the applied surface.

adhesion, chemical= the attachment of an ink or coating to a surface by actual chemical attack which changes the character of the substrate.

adhesion, intercoat= the ability of inks and coatings to adhere to one another.

adhesion, intracoat
the ability of an ink or coating to maintain its integrity without separating or layering.

adhesion, mechanical
(1) attraction between two surfaces that is promoted by a physical interlocking (plastisol adheres to fabric by such bond after curing); (2) an attachment of a ink or coating film to a surface by molecular attraction without altering the coated surface.

adhesion, peel
a measure of the force required to remove a material from a test panel at a specified angle and speed after the material was applied to the panel under specific conditions.

adhesion shear
a measure of the time required to slide a standard area (as of a decal) from a standard flat surface in a direction parallel to the surface.

adhesion, specific
the force required to remove a decal adhesive from a specified substrate under specified conditions.

adhesion test
any of a variety of test methods used to determine adequate bonding of ink or coating to a substrate.

adhesion ultimate
the mature bond established under controlled conditions between the tacky surface of a decal (or similar) and a substrate.

adhesive (glue)(cermet)(gum)
a substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

adhesive bleed (ooze)
adhesive exudation from pressure sensitive stock before or after processing to finished product, as a result of cold flow or clamp pressure.

adhesive cold temperature, adhesive high temperature
an adhesive that will induce a bond to a cold substrate or respectively a hot substrate.

adhesive, layflat
an adhesive having the property of resistance to warping in laminations.

adhesive, permanent
an adhesive with relatively high ultimate adhesion properties.

adhesive, pressure sensitive
a type of adhesive that in dry (solvent free) form is aggressively tacky at room temperature with the capability of inducing a bond with dissimilar surfaces on contact with slightly firm pressure.

adhesive, removeable
an adhesive characterized by high cohesive strength and low ultimate adhesion strength.

adhesive residue
(1) adhesive deposit remaining on substrate due to cohesive failure when a pressure sensitive material is removed; (2) adhesive remaining on water-applied decal after application to a surface.

adhesive, temporary
an adhesive characterized by relatively short ultimate adhesion.

adjacency effect
(1) property of the eye that causes the same color to look different when surrounded by or adjacent to other colors, such as a color will appear darker when surrounded by a lighter color, or lighter when surrounded by a darker color; (2) alterations in exposure densities within a silver halide film emulsion that occur during processing at the conjunction areas of differing densities.

adjustable camera
a camera with manually adjustable distance settings, lens openings and shutter speeds.

adjustable mesh holder
refer to adjustable frame.

adjustable focus
describes a camera lens that has adjustable distance settings.

adjustable frame
an adjustable screen printing chase with side members capable of moving toward or from the center of the chase, to which the mesh is attached for tensioning or register control; refer to retensionable frame.

adjustable stroke
a means of mechanical control of the distance that the squeegee travels in screen printing.

adsorption
(1) the concentration of molecules of a particular kind of the inter-face between the pigment and vehicle in screen printing inks, can effectively remove a component such as the drier from an ink vehicle; (2) a surface phenomena, in which liquid or gaseous molecules are retained on the surface of another substance; (3) the adhesion of molecules to a surface; (4) an effect of light striking an object where the light energy is absorbed and re-emitted at longer wavelenghts; (5) in optics, the loss in transmission of light, as through a transparent or translucent material.

advertising specialty
any novelty item that can be imprinted, and usually given to customers as a promotional article.

affected facility
within the meaning of the Clean Air Act (US), refers to a stationary source of air pollutants, or any apparatus to which a federal standard is applicable.

affinity
the attraction between an adhesive and an adherent.

after burner
an air pollution device that removes noxious gases and vapors through incineration.

after tack
stickiness that develops in an ink film after it has apparently dried, or after a heat drying operation.

against the grain
at right angles to the grain direction of the paper.

agate
unit of measurement for depth of columns for advertising space; 14 agate lines equals one inch (2.54 cm).

agate burnisher
an agate tipped tool used for rubbing and polishing silver and gold decorations.

age resistance
to resist deterioration from oxygen, ozone, heat, light, or internal chemical action.

agglomerate
to collect or gather particles in a weakly bonded mass; a clustering of undispersed particles usually pigments.

aggregate
to collect or gather in strongly bonded mass.

aggressiveness
a means of comparatively categorizing adhesive products by degree of tackiness and speed with which bond occurs.

aging
(1) the change or changes undergone by a material as a result of the passage of time; (2) (steaming) the curing of screen printed decorations on textiles by application of moist heat to fix the colors into the fibers and to remove the stiffness (hand) induced by normally air dried imprints.

agitation
keeping a solution, or a substance in a solution, in motion during processing.

air bells
(1) surface defects in paper, sometimes called blisters or foam marks; (2) air bubbles sometime found in photo emulsion after stirring in sensitizers.

air brush
(1) a pencil-shaped device for spraying liquid by means of compressed air, used for retouching photographic prints to improve tonal value, for spraying inks, or for producing special effects on film positives; (2) a tool found in most graphic software packages that provides the effect of spraying a paint air mixture over an image.

air bubbles
bubbles of air adhering to the surface of a photographic negative, positive, carbon tissue, etc., when surface is immersed in solution.

air conditioning
regulation by mechanical means of temperature and air circulation within a selected enclosed area.

air contaminant
any substance of either man-made or natural origin in the ambient air such as dust, gas, fumes, mist (other than H2O), smoke, heat, and noise.

air dried pigment
pigment/resin combination capable of drying at room temperatures, with or without agitation of surrounding atmosphere by fan or other mechanical means.

air-gas ratio
volume of air per unit volume of gas in a mixture supplied to a gas burner.

air jet
refer to air knife.

air knife
the tiny holes or slots in the sheet, plate, or similar configuration within a drying system through which air is forced under compression onto the surface of freshly printed substrate to accelerate drying; also referred to as air jet.

air permeability
relative ability of a material to permit air flow, or to breathe.

air pollutant
dust, fumes, mist, smoke, and other particulate matter, vapor, gas, odorous substances, or any combination thereof.

air pull
coating the ink over the screen without making an impression on the substrate; also refer to flood coat, flood stroke, flooding.

air recovery
a process of capturing airborne contaminants such as smoke, dust, and solvent vapors.

akimbo
refer to double wing easel.

alabaster glass
a milky, white glass that diffuses light without fiery color.

alcohol
any of a class of chemical compounds derived from hydrocarbon by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms with an equal number of hydroxyl radicals; a class of solvents that in addition to the hydrogen and carbon elements, also have oxygen, general formula C2H5OH.

aliasing
a visual stair stepping of image edges caused by too low of a resolution for the size of the output.

alignment
the act of aligning or the condition of being aligned; in typesetting, denotes the exactly even relationship at the top or bottom of letters of a font; can also refer to the setting of lines of type, so that their ends appear even, refer to justify.

aliphatic hydrocarbon
commonly known as paraffins; a group of petroleum naphtha solvents that are straight chain or open chain hydrocarbons, such as petroleum ether, pentane, hexane, cyclohexane, mineral spirits, Stoddard solvent, kerosene, V M & P, mineral spirits, and lacquer diluents.

aliphatic solvent
a straight-chain solvent derived from petroleum of low KB (Kauri Butanol) value such as mineral spirits and Stoddard solvent.

alkali
any chemical that reacts on contact with an acid; capable of neutralizing acids; pH greater than 7.

alkali blue
refer to reflex blue.

alkaline dip
term used for that step in stripping or removing of an alkali soluble resist when an etched circuit board is dipped and soaked in a high strength (6-10%) solution of a sodium hydroxide, softening the resist which is subsequently removed in a separate water rinse.

alkali removeable
resist ink, which when dry, are removable by application of a caustic compound or alkaline solution.

alkali resistance
the relative ability to resist the action of alkalis.

alkali test
used to evaluate the resistance of printed labels to alkalis.

alkyd
a group of synthetic resins formed by condensation of polybasic acids with polyhydric alcohols, modified with drying oils for printing ink manufacture.

alkyd plastic
thermoset plastic based on resins composed principally of polymeric esters, where the recurring ester groups are an integral part of the main polymer chain, and where the ester groups occur in most cross links that may be present between chains.

allergen
a chemical to which an individual may be, or become, abnormally sensitive.

alligator
the effect of a surface film contracting during drying to form small, irregular islands of color somewhat resembling the texture of alligator skin, also referred to as orange peel.

all-over printing
the technique of covering the entire front and/or front and back of a garment with a printed image.

alpha
(1) the average percent change in resistance per degree of a pure metal resistance device between 0 degrees and 100 degrees Centigrade, which is usually designated by the Greek letter A or a, with units of ohm/ohm/C; (2) the mask channel in a color system.

alpha blending
ability to specify a fourth color component in addition to RGB, used to specify opacity, from completely transparent to opaque.

alpha channel
an eight-bit grayscale channel found in some graphics applications or the last eight bits in a 32-bit color scan. (The first 24 bits describe the color of objects. Alpha channels permit layering of images. Some uses include masking objects, making them transparent, or adding specific color instructions).

alphabet length
the space required for the letters of the alphabet in a particular type font.

alphabet sheet
sheet containing fonts of letters that may be removed and relocated to form words and/or lines of copy. (They are either on transparent material having a pressure sensitive adhesive back, or the letters are printed on the back of the sheet and adhered to the new substrate by burnishing).

alphanumeric
consisting of alphabetic and numerical symbols; a device or system that includes letters and numbers.

alter
a change made to an image element, color, or page layout through computer manipulation.

alteration
change in copy or specification made after production has begun.

alternative method
within the meaning of the Clean Air Act (US), any method of sampling and/or analyzing for an air pollutant, which is not a reference (or equivalent) method, but which has been demonstrated to produce results adequate for the determination of compliance with the Act.

alumina
any of several forms of aluminum oxide used as an abrasive and in marking glass, enamel, and refractories.

alumina hydrate
a white inorganic pigment used as an extender in inks and noted for its transparency.

aluminum bronze
finely pulverized aluminum in very small flake form suitable for mixing with a varnish type or lacquer type vehicle for use in screen printing metallic effects.

aluminum ink
a printing ink whose principal pigment consists of aluminum, finely pulverized into flaky particles, and when printed gives a silver color appearance; also referred to as silver ink.

aluminum sterate (oxide)
a principal thickening agent used in many screen printing inks and transparent extender bases.

AMAL
abbreviation for amalgam.

ambient
surrounding environmental conditions such as pressure, temperature, or humidity; environment coming into contact with a system or component.

ambient compensation
the design of an instrument such that changes in ambient temperature do not affect the reading.

ambient temperature
temperature of the immediately surrounding air volume.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
a standards setting agency of the United States that approves design and performance of electrical/electronic components (USA).

American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM)
the world’s largest source of voluntary consensus standards on the characteristics and performance of materials (USA).

American Wire Gauge (AWG
a wire diameter specification where the smaller the number designator, the larger the wire diameter.

amine resin
synthetic resin derived from the reaction of urea thiourea, melamine, or allied compounds with aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde.

ammonium bichromate (ammonium dichromate)
a compound or salt used for rendering colloids or emulsions active to actinic light such as in photostencils.

ammonium fixer
photography, a fixing bath containing NH4+ (univalent ion of ammonia) that is used for removing silver halides from photosensitive emulsions.

amp
abbreviation for ampere.

ampere
a standard unit of current produced by one coulomb of charge passing a point in one second.

amphoteric
capable of acting either as an acid or base.

ampule (ampoule)
a small hermetically sealed glass container that is designed to be filled and then sealed by fusion of the glass neck.

amyl acetate
used in some lacquer formulations because of low evaporation rate.

analine printing
refer to flexographic printing.

analogous color
colors that appear next to the primaries on the color wheel; different colors related by having the same base for example blues and purples are analogous.

anamorphic distortion
changing the perceived shape of an object in an image based on mathematically defined criteria.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
the systematic method of statistically evaluating experimental results in order to separate the sources of variation.

anchorage
specific adhesion of an adhesive agent to a face material or anchor coat.

anchor coat (primer) (tie coat)
a coating applied to the face material prior to the application of a pressure sensitive adhesive, to improve bonding (or anchoring) of printed inks.

angel hair
refer to cob webbing.

angle of attack
the angle formed by the face of the moving squeegee blade and the plane of the screen, under pressure. (Due to the flexibility of the blade, this angle generally differs from the squeegee angle, which is measured without movement or pressure).

angle of view
that portion of a subject which is seen by the camera lens, as determined by the focal length of the lens.

angle, squeegee
the angle formed by the face of the squeegee blade, on the side toward the direction of the printing stroke, and the plane of the screen mesh, with squeegee in printing position but without pressure.

angle, screen
the positioning of multicolor halftone screens with respect to all others in the same printing group to avoid moiré patterns.

angstrom
used to express the length of light waves; a standard measure of a lightwave; a unit of length equal to one hundred millionth (10-8) of a centimeter. (The visible spectrum extends from red light, 7,000 angstrom units, to violet light, which is about 4,000 angstrom units).

aniline dye
synthetic dyestuff made from coal tar or its derivatives.

aniline point
the temperature at which a volume of a hydrocarbon will dissolve an equal volume of aniline oil. (The aniline point is regarded as the temperature at which the mixture becomes homogeneous and is useful in evaluating solvent power).

animation
to make or produce, so as to create the illusion of motion.

anneal
to heat a material to a predetermined temperature and slowly cooling it to relieve stress and make it less brittle, also refer to temper.

anodize
an electrochemical oxidation of aluminum to form a porous aluminum oxide surface, which can be colored and is nonconductive, non-corrosive, and resistant to abrasion.

anodizing
the process of adding a protective oxide film to metal by an electrolytic process.

ANOVA
acroynm for Analysis of Variance.

ANSI
acronym for American National Standards Institute; formerly the American Standard Association.

antiforming agent
ink additive that breaks foaming bubbles that may occur during printing.

antihalation
a coating or backing put on a film or screen mesh to prevent blurring and/or spreading of light by reflection from the film base or threads. (In screen mesh, antihalation is achieved by dyeing the fabric various shades of yellow, orange, or red).

antioxidant
a chemical substance that selectively reacts with oxygen to inhibit or prevent oxidation.

antique finish
a natural or cream color, relatively rough finish on paper stock resulting from the use of long nap felts on the wet presses that are run with light pressure to give bulk, and with little calendering pressure.

anti-aliasing
the removal or softening of image rough edges (jaggies) by averaging or blending of surrounding colors.

anti-skinning agent
chemical substances that retards skin formation on the surface of an oxidizable ink; sometimes referred to as antitoxidants.

anti-static agent
medium which when added to the molding material or applied on the surface of the molded object, make it less conducting.

anti-static solution
any liquid sprayed or otherwise coated onto a surface that tends to prevent or reduce the build up of static electricity.

anvil cut label
pressure sensitive label that have been die cut through components of the label stock.

AP
an abbreviation for artist’s (author’s) proof.

aperture
(1) the open area in screen printing mesh between the threads; (2) opening in a camera lens through which light rays pass from subject to film plane to form an image.

aperture percentage
the percentage of the total area of a web of screen printing mesh that is not occupied by the threads of the weave; i.e., that portion of the fabric area through which ink can pass.

apochromatic lens
a process lens that has been corrected for both chromatic and spherical aberrations.

apparent dot area
percentage of dot coverage in a specific area, as measured using a densitometer and calculated using the Murray-Davies equation.

apparent dot gain
difference between the apparent dot area of the film, as measured by a transmission densitometer, and the apparent dot area of the proof or printed sheet, as measured with a reflection densitometer. (Indicates how much the dots of ink have spread in relation to the original film dot area).

apparent viscosity
a characteristic of multi-component liquids that have a variable ratio of shreds stress over shear rate (variable viscosity depending on conditions).

appearance
manifestation of the nature of objects and materials through visual attributes such as size, shape, color, texture, gloss, transparency, and opacity.

application
(1) an adhesive-coated film emblem, or decal affixed to a designated substrate; (2) an ink or color screen printed directly onto a substrate; (3) often used as a general term to designate a particular screen printed product; (4) the highest level of software that a user sees; also a generic term for software.

application printing (textile)
the placement of coloring agents directly onto the fabric substrate.

application tape (application paper)
a support material used to facilitate the application of pressure sensitive markings.

application temperature
the miniumum temperature at which a pressure sensitive material can be applied to a surface.

applicator
an instrument or equipment for applying something such as a device that automatically feeds and applies labels to the product.

applied color decorating
decorating by applying color directly onto the substrate, as opposed to using transfer or decal techniques.

apron
extension area of lehr for handling of ware, also be applied to extensions of conveyor dryer for stock handling.

aq
abbreviation for aqueous.

AQL
acroynm for acceptable quality level.

aqueous dispersion
pigments dispersed in a water soluble binding medium that changes to a water insoluble form when the printed cloth is steamed or heat cured.

arcing
a spark discharge of electric current crossing a gap between two electrodes.

arc lamp
refer to carbon arc.

arc resistance
the resistance to current flow across the surface of the material measured as the time required for an arc to establish a conductive path in a substance.

archival
Term loosely used to refer to material that can be used without side effects in the conservation or care of important artifacts. Pertaining to the production of new items designed to have very good aging qualities.e.g. non-fading inks, acid free paper, etc.

archival ink
ink used in fine art digital printing that has been optimized for permanance.

archiving
retention of images, often on CD-ROM, for a specified period. Information necessary to reproduce the print is also archived, including ink, tables, sizes, and media used.

argon
a colorless, odorless inert gas.

aromatic solvent
organic liquid derived from products of petroleum origin having a cyclic or ring hydrocarbon structure and KB (Kauri Butanol) value over 40 such as toluene or xylene.

artifact
unwanted visual anomalies or defects generated by an input or output device, or by a software operation, that degrade image quality. See also aliasing, moiré pattern.

artificial fiber
a classification of manufactured fibers made from natural sources such as wood or other plant material.

artificial daylight
man-made light source that closely reproduces the color and spectral distriburion of natural daylight.

artificial fiber
a classification of manufactured fibers made from natural sources such as wood or other plant material.

artist’s proof
prints or serigraphs from an edition that are owned by the artist and generally are not offered for sale. (They are of the same quality as numbered prints in the edition).

art knife
a tool with an usually small, keen blade used for very light cutting of sheet material such as frisket paper, masking film, tracing sheet, and other such materials.

art paper
a coated paper often having a high finish used in printing halftones.

art print
printing of original or reproductions of artwork with any number of methods. Iris/Giclee/Inkjet,lithography, offset lithography, serigraphy being the major sources for Art Print production.

art reproduction
to make a reasonable facsimile of an art object. Could be reproduced in any of a number of methods; painted, inkjet, serigraph, offset lithography, sculpted, cast etc.

art type
type faces, designs, and individual characters screen printed onto gummed acetate sheets. (The type or designs are cut from the acetate sheet and made to adhere to the copy by merely pressing on or rubbing gently), also refer to alphabet sheets.

art work
the original copy intended for reproduction, also refer to rough art and camera ready art.

art work, comprehensive
design produced primarily for customer approval of layout, not necessarily camera ready. (Color work may be indicated by overlays to show color areas over the black and white base design).

art work, separated
art work produced to indicate separation of color areas; a separate layout for each color.

ASA rating
the American Standards Association (US) scale by which the relative sensitivity of photographic films is identified, largely replaced by DIN and ISO rating scales.

ascender
the portion of a lower-case character that extends above the main body such as b,d,or h.

aspect ratio
(1) ratio of length to diameter of a fiber; (2) relationship of an image horizontal length and vertical height, designated with horizontal number first such as 3:2.

ASQ
acronym for American Society of Quality (USA), formally American Society for Quality Control (ASQC).

Association Connecting Electronics Industry
association of companies involved in printed circuit boards and electronic assemblies; refer to IPC.

astigmatism
a relective defect of a lens that prevents focusing of a sharply defined image and from bringing horizontal and vertical lines to a sharp focus at the same time on a flat surface.

ASTM
acronym for American Society for Testing & Materials (US).

atmosphere
(1) climate or environment in a given place, generally a reference to temperature and relative humidity; (2) a standard unit of pressure, equal to 1.01325 x 105 newtons per square meter or 14.7 pounds per square inch or 760 mm of mercury.

atomic absorption tester
laboratory equipment used for detecting the presence and concentration of metals such as lead and cadmium.

attenuation
a decrease in the maximum concentration or total quantity of an applied chemical during a fixed time.

atto
a prefix utilized in the Metric System of Measurement which denotes 10 to the negative power of 18 (10-18 ) or 0.000 000 000 000 000 001.Its symbol is a.

attribute
(1) a quality or distinguishing characteristic of a sensation, perception, or mode of appearance, distinction is made between chromatic and geometric appearance attributes, colors are often described by their attributes of hue, saturation, or mode of appearance; (2) used in statistical process control (SPC) to denote characteristics that are qualitative.

attributes data
qualitative data that can be counted for recording and analysis purposes.

audiometer
an instrument that measures hearing sensitivity.

automatic conveyorized drying
a widely used means of drying a screen print without racking that incorporates a conveyor belt with a drying or curing chamber.

automatic feeder
a device for picking up single sheets from a pile and moving them, one at a time into the printing area of the press to be printed.

automatic machine (automatic press)
a machine that completes partial or full operation cycles by means of energy other than human motion. (A fully automatic screen press loads, prints, and discharges the print without manual effort on the part of the operator other than the switching on and off of the energy source, usually electricity, or controlling machine speed. In some cases, may include ink feeding).

automatic peel
a feature generally found on a larger automatic screen printing press, where the screen is lifted mechanically behind the moving squeegee, by a spring or cam device.

automatic processor
a unit where exposed photosensitive sheet material is fed to travel through the processing baths under controlled conditions, and be delivered fully processed and dried at the point of removal.

autopositve film
a film that develops a positive form from a positive original on exposure, or a negative image from a negative original by reflex exposure through yellow sheeting.

autoscreen film
film that has a line halftone screen incorporated into the emulsion, and after exposure to an original, develops to a halftone image.

auxiliary display
any type of point-of-purchase display that is in addition to general line of checkout displays, including floor displays, baskets, racks and counter displays.

auxiliary racks
display fixtures that are in addition to general line racks, including checkout racks, and racks that can be attached to a general line rack.

ave
abbreviation for average.

avoirdupois weight
a system of weights and measures based on a pound containing 16 ounces, 7000 grains, or 453.59 grams, and an ounce weighing 16 drams.

AWG
acroynm for American Wire Gauge.

axis
(1) a straight line, real or imaginary that passes through a body and about which the body may or actually does rotate; (2) geometric guidelines used to place a coordinate that determines knife or tool paths for plotters and routers.

azodye
any of various red, brown, or yellow acidic or basic dyes derived from nitrobenzene in an alkaline solution.

B
abbreviation for bytes; acroynm for additive primary color blue.
b
abbreviation for bits.

B stage
an intermediate stage in the reaction of a thermosetting resin where the material softens when heated and swells in contact with certain liquids, but does not fuse or dissolve; also refer to A and C stage.

back card
a card unit attached to the back of a dump bin, floor bin, or counter merchandiser that projects above the merchandise and presents the selling message at eye level.

back-etching
a color correction technique for reducing the density of a continuous tone negative.

backlap
an extremely heavy, uneven application of color at one edge of a print.

back gray cloth
cotton fabric material placed over the waterproof layer on top of the felt padding on the screen printing table to prevent through printed dyes from being absorbed into the felt padding.

base artwork
artwork that requires additional components to be added before reproduction.

backbone
the back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also referred to a spline.

background
area appearing behind the legend or principle subject of a print.

backing
typically a non-woven material applied beneath material being sewn to increase fabric stability and support stitches.

backing adhesive
an adhesive applied to the back surface of a membrane switch, 0.002 to 0.005 thick, to attach it to the application surface.

backing sheet
support aid such as the plastic or paper support sheet of knife-cut stencil film, indirect photoscreen stencil film, camera film, and the support sheet of pressure sensitive laminations.

backing up
printing the reverse side of a sheet that has already been printed on one side.

backlap
a very heavy, rough application of color at one side of a print. backlash
movement beyond actual adjustment in a device, usually when a screw type adjustment cannot be locked into the adjusted position.

back lighted display
a printed display prepared on transparent material that can be illuminated from the rear to enhance attention value.

back lighting
the process of illuminating transparent artwork or screen printed transparency film from behind.

back printing
printing on the underside or second surface of a transparent sheet or film; also referred to as reverse printing.

back score
a cut score made from the back of a display.

back slanted letter
type that is slanted toward the left.

back slit
a cut or slit through the backing sheet of pressure sensitive film.

baffle
a device used to separate one light source from another.

baffle mark
a seam on a bottle resulting from an imperfect mold joint between the blank mold and the baffle.

bake
to convert an organic coating film from a liquid to a continuous, hard, dry film by the application of heat.

baked enamel
a type of finish, usually screen printed or sprayed on a metal surface with enamels containing resins, dried, and then baked at a high temperature to prolong the life of the coating.

baking
to dry or harden by subjecting to heat, usually a temperature above 65.6° C (150° F).

baking cycle
the time and temperature combination used to develop maximum properties of an organic film.

balance
(1) a device for weighing material in the preparation of processing compounds and solutions; (2) harmony and equilibrium of graphic elements due to placement.

ball mill
a rotating cylinder containing smooth pebbles, porcelain balls, or steel balls in which organic pigment or inorganic ceramic material is ground in either a wet or dry state.

ballast
a step up transformer with a range of capacitors for regulating line voltage to a lamp housing.

Balopticon
a projector used to project an image onto a drawing surface to enlarge or reduce photos, sketches, or drawings.

balsam or copaiba
a natural resinous liquid used as a color vehicle.

banding
(1) application of banded decoration to glass or ceramic items with a banding wheel; (2) undesirable harsh, well defined transitions on a print.

bandwidth
the range of wavelengths between two identified limits, expressed in the same units as wavelength (nm).

banned heavy salts
metal substances that are controlled by government restrictions (US) such as chrome, lead, arsenic, selenium, and antimony.

banner
a sign made of fabric, plastic, or other non-rigid material that has no enclosed framework.

bar
a standard unit of pressure equal to 105 newtons per square meter or 0.98697 standard atmosphere.

bar code
refer to universal product code.

Barcol hardness
a hardness value obtained by measuring the resistance to penetration of a sharp steel point under a spring load, gives direct readings on a 0 to 100 scale; also refer to Shore hardness.

barium crown glass
an optical glass containing soda (Na2O), lime (CaO), and silica (silicon dioxide) composites.

barium flint glass
an optical glass containing 45 to 65% lead oxide.

barium oxide
derived from BaCO3 (witherite) used principally in optical and crystal glass instead of lime or red lead.

barre
a stripe-like pattern in woven fabric, parallel to the weft threads, and usually caused by dye differences in the fibers or physical differences in thread geometry.

barrel distortion
image effect that spreads the center dimensions of the picture.

barrier coat (primer)(sealer coat): a coating applied to face material to provide increased opacity to the face material and/or to prevent migration between adhesive and face material and to improve anchorage of adhesives to face material.

barrier tape
reflective pressure sensitive strips printed with diagonal strips of red transparent ink for applicantion to rear/side of a vehicle or to a street barrier, warning, or safety signal.

barytes
a colorless crystalline mineral of barium sulfate used as an ink pigment, extender, or filler.

base
(1) a firm, true surface on which the substrate is placed for printing; (2) a modifying additive for screen printing inks; an unpigmented ink or adhesive; refer to extender base and transparent base; (3) a specific type of resin that determines the character of the ink such as acrylic base, oil base, synthetic base, and vinyl base.

base/4
an image resolution with 1/4 the number of pixels of a base resolution.

base/16
an image resolution with 1/16 the number of pixels of a base resolution.

base alignment
the positioning of type with relation to the same base line, also refer to baseline.

base chuck
an indexing device for screen printing of cylindrical and tapered objects.

base color
the background color in multiple color printing.

base line
(1) any line or specified quanity used as a point of reference; (2) the positioning of the bottom of letters so that they appear to rest on a common but imaginary line.

base material
refer to face material.

base resolution
photo CD image resolution (512 x 768 pixels) formatted for display on current consumer televisions.

basic dyes
dyes that have not been incorporated into carriers or vehicles of any type.

basic flash exposure
in halftone work, the secondary exposure required to produce a shadow dot of the desired size in the film. (The basic flash exposure is of relatively short duration compared to the main exposure which precedes it).

basic size
a specific size recognized by the trade as being the one from which its basic weight is determined, generally 500 sheets (wrapping tissue uses a ream count of 480 sheets).

basis weight
the weight of a ream (500 sheets) in pounds cut to the basic size for its grade; refer to paper sizes international. (In the US the basic sizes are 635 x 965 mm – 25 by 38 for book papers, 508 x 660 mm – 20 by 26 for cover papers, 610 x 914 mm – 24 x 36 for newsprint, 432 x 559 – 11 x 22 for bond, and 648 x725 mm – 25 _ by 30 _ for index).

bastard size
a non-standard size of any material.

BAT.
acroynm for Best Available Technology, refers to goals set for controlling water affluents by the U.S. Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972.

batch
a quantity produced as the result of one operation.

batch consistency
a preservation of uniformity in the formulation or manufacturing of screen printing inks, plastic compositions, etc., to ensure subsequent batches match preceding batches of like formulation in all respects.

batch sample
the collection of substances or products of the same category, configuration, or subgroup that are drawn from a batch and from which test samples are drawn.

batch scan
the process of scanning numerous pages that contain similar data.

bath
any chemical solution used in photography; a common expression designating a solution of developing agents, fixing agents, and/or solutions that inhibit or stop chemical reaction, or other solutions used in photographic processes.

baume scale
hydrometer scale that separately covers liquids with specific gravities greater and less than 1.

bead
an enlarged rounded edge of a tumbler or other glass article.

beads, reflective
minute round particles of glass for embedding in an ink or adhesive film to act as a lens to reflect light rays.

beam easel
an easel whereby a shelf on a display can be locked into position.

beater
a larger mixer used where pulp is combined with other ingredients in paper manufacturing.

bed knife
a stationary knife located in a sheeting machine.

bellows
a collapsible light-tight portion of some cameras that connect the lens to the camera back.

belt conveyor
a moving belt system for transporting prints from one processing stage to the next as from press to dryer, through dryer, from dryer to packing area, in almost any conceivable order. (Belt may be made of metal or synthetic mesh, heavy cloth, web straps, wires, etc.).

belt mark (chain mark)
a depression on the bottom of a glass article from metal link belt in lehr caused by slight overheating of either the conveyor belt or the glass article or by over-firing of the ware.

belt printing
a textile printing process that utilizes a continuous belt as a platen. (The substrate is adhered to the belt with an adhesive and is indexed from screen to screen by the rotation of the belt, generally uses waterbased inks that can be washed off of the belt by a washer.)

belt speed
the rate of travel, usually measured in inches or feet per minute, of the belt of any conveyor dryer system.

bench can
a wide mouth safety receptacle for wetting rags with solvent, generally by means of a spring-loaded, perforated pedestal and tray. (By depressing the tray, the liquid is pumped onto the rag in controlled amounts.)

bench oven
a small unit for bench mounting, for the heat treating of printed or other products in prototype quantities, usually found in laboratory or research departments. (There is no conveyor, so individual items must be placed within the convection heat chamber manually).

benchmark
a set of tests or standards to determine performance of an item or system.

Benday
a method of adding a tone to an image by imposing a transparent sheet of patterns to obtain the various tones and shadings on the printed image, also refer to screen tint.

bender
a paperboard that can be creased, scored, or folded without breaking.

bent glass
glass or glass article that has been formed by heating into a curved or other shape from a flat sheet.

benzidine yellow
a strong yellow toner used in many types of printing ink and dyes.

benzol
another name for benzene; a clear, colorless, aromatic liquid, the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon extracted from coal tar C6H6.

beveled glass
cold glass whose edges have been ground and polished to an angle other than 90 degrees.

bevel-edged die
a cutting die that has been tooled to produce a precise bevel to the image edge.

beveling
the process of edge finishing flat glass to produce an angle.

bézier curve
curved line segments created by establishing endpoints or anchor points, and at least one transient point or node.

bias
a line at an angle to the threads of a mesh; applying the mesh at an angle to the frame in some fashion.

bichromate
a photosensitive salt of ammonium or potassium bichromate used as a sensitizer in some screen printing stencil emulsions.

bichromate direct emulsion
a sensitized liquid emulsion used for making screen printing stencils by the direct method.

bi-cubic interpolation
matrix for comparison of central pixels to surrounding pixels. Used to increase the apparent resolution of a digital image. Also refer to interpolation.

bi-cutter
a stencil knife with two blades usually with width adjustment for cutting parallel lines simultaneously.

binder
(1) that portion of the vehicle of an ink composition that, in combination with the pigments, forms the film; (2) the adhesive components of an ink that hold the pigment to the printed surface; (3) in paper, an adhesive component used to cement inert filler such as clay to the sheet; (4) carrier or vehicle that fix the pigments in screen printing dyes onto the fibers of the fabric being decorated.

binding
the process of attaching loose sheets into multiple page document.

binding varnish
a viscous varnish used in the composition of inks to toughen the ink film.

biocide
a chemical agent or substance that kills or inhibits the growth micro-organisms.

biodegradable
of a substance, capable of being decomposed by natural biological processes.

birdnesting
top thread not following thread path or up and down substrate movement under needle caused by inadequate top thread tension or improperly stabilized fabric.

biscuit
an unglazed piece of clay that has been fired.

bisection plane construction
a display construction whereby two planes are connected by interlocking.

bisque ware
ceramic ware that has been hardened by an initial firing but without color other than that produced by the clay in firing; unglazed ceramic ware that has been fired once.

bit
a binary digit, 0 to 1, represented as a single on-off circuit.

bit depth
maximum number of bits that are used to define a pixel that is a measure of the defined brightness range.

bitmap
a rasterized graphic image formed by a rectangular grid of pixels or dots.

bite
the penetration of a substrate surface by ink, solvents, or an adhesive.

black
(1) the absence of all reflected light; the color that is produced when an object absorbs all wavelengths from the light source; (2) in four-color printing process black is required in the printing process because equal amounts of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink will not produce a true black, designated by the letter “K.”

black and white (B/W)
originals and printed material comprised only of black and white or tones of gray.

black and white art
line art in black and white usually produced on smooth or textured board with pen or brush and black ink or generated by computer in black and white.

blackbody
a surface that completely absorbs all radiant energy striking it without reflection.

black iron oxide
an inorganic pigment with excellent fade and bleeding resistance, poor gloss, and good resistance to acids and alkali.

black light
invisible infrared or ultaviolet radiation, a common name for ultraviolet rays which have a wavelength between 3200 and 4000 angstrom units.

black light fluorescent tube
electrically activated tubular shape light source, high in actinic value that emits rays in or very near the ultraviolet band of the spectrum, used for exposing photosensitive stencil films.

black generation
the reduction of the intensity of the process colors and replacing with a more intense black when separating an RGB color image into CMYK colors, typically referred to as GCR or UCR.

black printer
in process color reproduction, the prepress materials used to produce the black image. (The letter “K” is used to designate this color.)

black point
scanned color that produces values of 0, 0, 0 in a acanner. (Ideally, black point is 0% neutral reflectance or transmittance), also refer to white point.

blackboard coating (chalkboard coating): a smooth, hard, matte surface coating applied by spraying or screen printing onto a substrate to provide a writing surface for chalk.

blackening
a darkened defect in paper caused by crushing at the calenders which is usually associated with a decrease in capacity, but may also be caused by excessive moisture.

blade
the flexible printing edge of the squeegee which may be made from various elastomers of polyurethane, neoprene, or rubber.

blade coating
a method of coating paper utilizing a flexible blade set at an adjustable angle against the web, supported by a soft surfaced backing roll.

blade marks
broad indentations in the surface coating of paper, which can be caused by an untrue blade or faulty mix of the coating material.

blade scratch
a very fine hair-like indentation in paper which may vary from a few feet to several hundred feet in the machine direction of the web.

blank dummy (mock-up)
a full size, serviceable model of a display without printing or art work.

blanks
(1) cardboard, plastic, metal, or other unprinted substrate used for making displays and signs; (2) unprinted garments or piece goods.

blank ware
undecorated glass or ceramic ware.

bleach
(1) method of measuring the tinctorial strength of an ink or toner; (2) generic for household bleaching agent such as Clorox, sometimes used for reclaiming printing screens.

bleach board
a paper boards that is totally composed of bleached fiber.

bleaching
the removal of color or other material by chemical action.

bleed
(1) the spreading or migration of an ink component or dye into an area where it is not wanted; (2) the spreading or running of a pigment color by action of a solvent; (3) color printed to or beyond the finished outer edges of a substrate; (4) the part of the page that is trimmed off, referred to as selvage.

bleeding
(1) the diffusion or migration of color from an ink film to the surrounding surface, with which it comes in contact; (2) migration of dye from a fabric to the ink or coating previously applied, usually initiated by heat.

blend
(1) the content of the fabric sometimes used in the manufacture of a garment such as 50% cotton and 50% polyester; (2) printing two colors so smoothly that there is no perceptible line at their intersection; (3) a mixture of solvents, resins, and/or pigments; (4) inter-mixture of two or more colors; (5) in computer graphic software, the intermediate steps between two objects created when the objects are merged together via a specified number of intermidiate steps.

blending
(1) intermix of two or more solvents and/or pigments; (2) arrangement of colors, and act of printing by intermixing various colors on the screen to provide an even gradation from one intensity to the next without using photomechanical techniques.

blind embossing
impressing a relief image into a substrate without first printing the image.

blister (blistering)
(1) a defect consisting of a bubble that forms during drying or fusion and remains in the print after drying or firing is complete; (2) a bubble entrapped in a glass or ceramic article.

block color
color printed solid with near identical opacity and density over the entire surface and without gradations, tints or shading.

blocking
an undesired adhesion between layers of material placed in contact under moderate pressure and/or temperature in storage or use, usually occurs in a stack of printed material that is stacked prior to thorough drying.

block out
sealing the mesh of the printing screen against pinholes and leakage in the areas between the image and the extreme edges of the frame.

blockout solution (blockout compound)(blockout filler)
liquid masking material used to cover pinholes and non-image areas of the screen mesh around the perimeter of the stencil.

bloom
(1) the bluish-gray milky veil that appears on the surface of a print under adverse conditions of heat and humidity; (2) a film that forms on glass enamel or precious metal as a result of atmospheric action during firing.

blotch
an area of discoloration, usually irregular in shape.

blotting
(1) to spot or stain; a spreading blemished effect; (2) to soak up or absorb moisture from a stencil that has been previously exposed, washed out, and adhered to the mesh with an aborbent material.

blow back
reversal of the vacuum action of a vacuum printing table that aids in the fast removal of printed substrate.

blowing agent
a chemical that is added to plastic and generates inert gases upon heating causing expansion.

blow molding
a method of fabricating where a parison (hollow tube) is forced into the shape of the mold cavity by internal air pressure.

blow up
(1) an enlargement of an original copy; (2) an oversize picture of a product or advertising message.

blue
one of the three additive colors of light.

blueline
a blue graphic image proof.

blue printer
in process color reproduction, the film positive or printing screen for reproducing the color cyan. The letter C is used to designate this color.

blue sensitive film
photographic film or emulsion which is sensitive to only the blue or ultraviolet portions of the spectrum.

blunging
a mechanical mixing of clay or slip with water.

blur (motion blur): softening of image detail, usually accomplished through software averaging of pixel values to soften edges.

blurring
a condition where the graphics are indistinct or appear out of focus; also refer to slur.

blushing
a milky or foggy appearance that sometimes develops as a transparent ink or coating dries due to the disposition of moisture from the air and percepitation of one or more of the solid components in the ink, usually found in inks that dry by solvent evaporation; also referred to as Bloom.

BM
acronym for blow molding.

BMP file
a Windows bitmap file, with an extension “.bmp” that defines an image (such as the image of a scanned page) as a pattern of dots (pixels).

board
a heavyweight, thick sheet of paper or other fibrous material, usually in a thickness greater than 6 ml (0.006 inches).

bodied oil
a drying or semi-drying oil whose viscosity has been increased by heating or chemical reaction.

body
the viscosity, consistency, and flow of a vehicle or ink, as assessed subjectively; a long-bodied ink is thick, while a short-bodied ink is thinner and creamy.

body label
a decoration applied to the body of a bottle.

body stock
refer to face material.

boiled oil
a linseed oil that has been subjected to a high temperature for a short period of time to increase viscosity and drying rate.

boiling point
(1) the temperature where a liquid boils under standard atmospheric conditions and the temperature at which a substance can be distilled; (2) the temperature where the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure of the atmosphere; (3) the temperature at which a liquid changes into a vapor. (The lower the biling point, the greater the potential for flammability).

bolt
a roll of screen mesh as it comes from the loom.

bolting cloth
mesh woven of multifilament strands with two strands in one direction being twisted alternatively around each single strand of the opposite direction.

bon a tirer (French)
meaning “good to print,” this is the first press proof approved by the artist in a print edition.

bond
the degree of adherence to glass or ceramics of an unfired color.

bond paper
a light weight paper stock with strength, rigidity, and good absorptive and erasing qualities.

bonding agent
an ink additive that improves ink adhesion characteristics, sometimes used when printing nylon jacket material.

bonding jumper
a metal wire or mesh connection two containers and providing metal-to-metal contact, thus preventing electrical sparks from static electricity.

bonding strength
(1) amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces; (2) a measure of the stress required to separate a layer of material from the base to which it is bonded; (3) in paper, the force with which the fibers adhere to each other; (4) in surface coatings, the strength with which the applied coating, when dry, adheres to the surface of the substrate.

bone china
vitreous extremely white, translucent dinnerware that contains bone ash; a porcelain made without feldspar.

BON maroon
an organic pigment with good fade resistance, poor resistance to alkali.

bonus-color concept
the provisions of an extra color or shade obtained by overprinting two or more transparent or translucent inks without the additional stencil or press run that a third color would normally require.

book paper
coated and uncoated papers.

borate glass
glass made from boron oxide instead of silica.

borax glass
vitreous anhydrous sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7).

border
a printed design or a line surrounding an illustration or text area of printed matter.

borosilicate crown glass
an optical crown glass containing substantial quantities of silica and boric oxide.

borosilicate glass
any silicate glass having at least 5% boron oxide (B2O3).

boss
projection designed into a plastic part to add strength, facilitate alignment during assembly, or to provide for fastening.

bottle cap printer
a printing device that prints an image onto bottle closures of different sizes.

bottle press
refer to container printing machine.

bottle topper
a small cardboard display tag designed to circle the neck of a bottle and carry an advertising image.

bowing
to bend or bring to a curved form such as the sides of a frame bending toward the center when under tension.

box connector
a display part used for connecting unattached planes in parallel.

box easel
a display part used for connecting unattached planes in a predetermined angle.

box rest
a support for displays placed on top of rods or bars.

bp
abbreviation for boiling point.

bpi
abbreviation for bits per inch.

Bps
abbreviation for bytes per second.

bps
abbrivation for bits per second.

brayer
a small hand roller used to distribute ink on a test slab or proof press.

break
(1) release of screen mesh from substrate surface at completion of printing stroke; (2) tear in screen mesh and/or stencil caused by excessive stress or impact; (3) nonproductive rest period; (4) the gap allowed in an incomplete circumferential print of the screen on a cylindrical object; (5) a tear or other defect in web face material or release liner, such defects are usually spliced and the location indicated by a protruding signal or flag; (6) resin separation.

break for color
in artwork, to separate and mark the parts to be printed in different colors, also refer to color break.

breakdown voltage
electromotive force where the insulation between two conductors is destroyed.

breaking length
the length of a strip of paper which would break of its own weight when suspended on end. A value calculated from the tensile strength and the basis weight of the sheet, also refer to tensile strength.

breaking load
the degree to which a material resists rupture by tension, measured in pounds, under specified conditions.

bridging
the ability of a direct emulsion stencil material to fill the area (bridge the gap) between screen threads and to retain solidity after exposure and washout.

bright copper
bright gold fluxed to fire out with a reddish copper color on glass or ceramic ware.

bright enamel
paper that has a glossy hard surface on one side or both sides.

bright glaze
a colorless or colored ceramicx glaze with a high gloss.

bright gold
a metallo-organic compound of gold dissolved in a suitable solvent system for producing a bright gold surface when fired.

bright green gold (bright lemon)(bright paddaldium)(bright platinum): gold composition for decorating glass with a yellow green hue when fired.

bright lemon gold
a bright gold with a bright yelloe hue when fired; formulated with gold and siver alloys.

bright red gold
bright gold with red hue when fired.

brightmeter
an instrument used to measure TAPPI (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry) brightness, and the fluorescent component of brightness in paper, adding optical brighteners increases the brightness of a paper.

brightness
(1) degree of reflectivity of a sheet of paper or similar substrate for blue light measured under standardized conditions by reflectometer calibrated for the wavelength of 457nm. (2) the overall intensity of the image. The lower the brightness value, the darker the image; the higher the value, the lighter the image will be. (3) dimension of color that is referred to in an achromatic scale, ranging from black to white; also called lightness or luminous reflectance or transmittance (q.v.).

brightness range
the difference in lighting brilliance between the brightest bright abd the darkest dark of an original scene or transparency.

brilliance
apparent color strength; the combined effect of brightness, strength, and/or purity of color tone.

bristol board
a fine kind of pasteboard smooth, and sometimes glazed on the surface, solid or laminated heavyweight paper having a thickness of 6 ml or greater (0.006 inch). (The name is derived from the original rag board made in Bristol, England).

bristol glaze
a raw glaze containing zinc oxide often used in terra cotta.

British Thermal Unit (Btu)
a measure of generated heat; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at or near its point of maximum density.

brittleness
an undesirable characteristic of a material or ink film that causes it to break or otherwise fail when bent or creased.

broadcloth
a plain weave fabric of cotton or poly-cotton blends with a slight ridge effect in one direction.

broken end
a defect in woven mesh due to a break in a warp thread.

bronze
an appearance characteristic of some printed films where the apparent color of the print depends upon the angle of view and illumination, giving the appearance of metal.

bronze paper
a paper board coated with a composition consisting of a finely divided metallic powder and a binder such as pyroxylin.

bronze powder
a metallic pigment added to printing inks consisting mainly of copper alloys in very fine flakes.

bronze screen
a printing screen made of fine, phosphor bronze wire mesh, used mainly for printing wallpaper.

bronzing (bronze dusting)
printing with a tacky size or adhesive and then dusting with finely powdered metal particles to give the appearance of metallic printing, usually applied using a special bronzing machine.

bronzing adhesive
a varnish-like clear material or coating on which dry metallic bronze powder is applied.

bronzing liquid
a wet liquid application of bronze powders to a substrate.

brush
a special effect filter that performs a specific function such as smoothing selective edges.

brush, rubbing
a stiff bristled brush used in rubbing down decal and steel plate transfers for glass decorating.

BS
abbreviation for British Standard.

BSI
acronym for the British Standards Institute, a standardization organization in Great Britain.

Btu
abbreviation for British thermal unit.

Btu/sec
a unit of power which denotes the number of British Thermal Units per second consumed; one BTU/second is equivalent to 1.06 kilowatts.

bubbles
trapped air, gas, or water vapor in an ink or coating or under a solidified film.

buckle lock
a display part used for locking two elements of light weight stock.

buffer
any substance or combination of substances, when dissolved in water, produce a solution that resists a change in its hydrogen ion concentration from the addition of an acid or alkali.

buffer capacity
the ability of a solution to resist pH changes when a strong acid or base is added.

build
the thickness, either real or apparent, of a dry ink or varnish film.

build-up layer
(1) a layer or sheet of material such as glass, sheet of card stock, or thin wood panel smaller than the inside dimensions of the printing frame, but larger than the stencil area on which the finished stencil film is placed for adhering, used to ensure pressurized contact with the mesh; (2) ink that sticks to the bottom of the screen while printing wet-on-wet (textiles).

bulk
(1) denotes the degree of paper thickness; (2) a measure of the thickness of a pile of a specified number of sheets of paper stock under a specified pressure expressed in thousandths of an inch or pages per inch (ppi).

bulking value
the solid volume of a unit weight of material expressed in gallons per pound; of a pigment, it is expressed in gallons per 100 lbs.

bump exposure
refer to flash exposure.

buried printing
(1) pigment pattern, and or copy applied to the underside (second side) of transparent stock prior to application of adhesive coat; (2) a laminate construction where a clear or transparent sheet is affixed over a printed marking to improve appearance and/or durability, also refer to embedment.

burn
the exposing of a photosensitized material with any light source high in ultraviolet radiation.

burn-off
removal of organic media from applied colors in a kiln.

burn off temperature
the temperature at which organic media is removed from applied colors, or the temperature at which the unwanted portion of a glass article is melted for removal.

burn rate
speed that a plastic will burn.

burning-in
additional light exposure given to part of the image projected on an enlarger easel to make that area of the print darker, after the basic exposure, while holding back the light from the rest of the image.

burnish gold
precious metal containing 18 to 24% pold metal combined with flux based on organic metal compounds.

burnish silver
precious metal preparation containing only silver.

burnisher
a blunt, smooth-surfaced instrument used to apply rub-down and dry-transfer images.

burr
sharp protrusion caused by rough edges.

bursting strength
the pressure required to rupture paper or fabric in an instrument such as a Mullen tester or Scott ball burst machine under specified conditions, expressed in pounds per square inch.

bursting strength tester
instrument used to measure the point that a paper, foil, film, textile, plastic or other material submits to bursting; also called Mullen tester.

butt
the joining together of two pieces of film or two different printed colors, without overlapping.

butt cut label
labels separated by a single knife-cut to the release liner.

butt register
artwork, which registers or butts one color next to another without a gap or trap between them.

button test
a test designed to determine relative fusibility of frit or powder.

butyl acetate
solvent used as a constituent of lacquers because of its low rate of evaporation.

butyl alcohol
a solvent high in strength for most natural gums, widely used in the formulation of nitrocellulose lacquers and synthetic resin inks and coatings.

butyl cellosolve
trade name for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, a high boiling point, high flash point, slow evaporating glycol ether solvent, sometimes used in lacquer inks or coatings based on vinyl, nitrocellulose and the like.

butyrate
common name for a tough cellulose acetate thermoplastic widely used for signs, and displays.

B/W
acroynm for black and white.

by-product
a chemical substance produced during the manufacture, processing, use, or disposal of another substance or mixture.

byte
a unit used to measure the capacity of a computer (eight bits equal one byte); the representation of a character.

C
abbreviation for Celsius; symbol for cyan in process color reproduction.
c
abbreviation for centi, cubic, candle.

c*
abbreviation for chromaticity difference.

C1S
abbreviation for coated one side.

C2S
abbreviation for coated two sides.

C-stage
the final stage in the reaction of thermosetting resin where the material is relatively insoluble and infusible; thermosetting resin in a fully cured state

CA
acroynm for cellulose acetate.

CAB.
acroynm for cellulose acetate butyrate.

CAD (Computer Aided Design)
software used to produce designs and drawings for architectural, engineering and scientific applications.

cabinet oven
a device for thermal treatment by convection, mounted on a floor stand, usually used for testing in the lab, or for very low production of small parts.

cache
a temporary storage area for information which locates itself between the hard disk and the RAM by employing intuitive logic. It also speeds up the access time of the data.

cadmium red
an inorganic red pigment composed of cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide that is resistant to light, heat, and soap.

cadmium yellow
an inorganic yellow pigment composed of cadmium sulfide and lighter shades of zinc sulfide that is resistant to light, heat, and soap.

calcine
to heat a ceramic batch material to a temperature below the melting or fusion point causing loss of moisture, reduction, or oxidation.

calender
(1) a configuration of heated rollers used for flattening one or both sides of synthetic screen printing mesh; (2) to prepare sheets of material by pressure between two or more counter rotating rolls; (3) a set of cast iron rollers with highly polished surfaces situated at the dry end of a paper making machine.

calendered fabric
screen mesh that has been flattened on one or both sides by passing it through heated rollers.

calendered film
a film with a very glossy surface obtained by passing the film between polished rollers under pressure, and sometimes under elevated temperature conditions.

calendered finished (calendered): any paper with a surface glazed by means of steel or cast iron rollers with hardened surfaces.

calendering
(1) a finishing process that flattens one or both sides of a screen mesh reducing mesh thickness and opening size; (2) a way of manufacturing plastic sheets by first converting the resins into a dough like mass then passing it between heated pressure rollers to form a sheet with a glossy or textured surface; (3) a method of producing a very high gloss surface on paper stock by passing the sheet between a series of pressure rollers; (4) a finishing process for fabric creating high luster, glazing, embossing, and moiré.

calender winkle
crease in paper web produced as the web passes through the calender rolls.

calibration
to determine, check, or rectify the graduations of any instrument giving quantitative measurements.

calibration bar
a strip of tones attached to a negative, proof, or print used to check print quality.

calibration curve
a graphic representation of the calibration record.

calibration cycle
calibration in ascending and descending directions.

calibration log
a record documenting when an instrument was calibrated and who performed the calibration procedure. (Other items that may be documented are temperature, relative humidity, and any other specific items of data beneficial in troubleshooting an instrument malfunction).

calibration standard
a reference material of a known or fixed value used to calibrate an instrument such as a calibration standard that can be traced to the US National Institue of Standards and Technology(NIST).

caliper
(1) the thickness of a substrate material usually expressed in mils or points, both being terms expressing thousandths of an inch. (0.050 is expressed as 50 point usually for paper stocks; or 50 mils when plastics are designated by thickness); (2) an instrument used to measure a substrate.

calorie
(1) the quantity of heat necessary at normal atmospheric pressure to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree centigrade; (2) a standard unit measure of heat, equal to 4.1840 joules; a thermal unit.

calorific value
the amount of heat measured in calories or Btu’s released by combustion of a unit quantity of fuel.

camera
a device for taking photographs, generally composed of a lightproof enclosure having an aperature with a shuttered lens through which the image of an object is focused and recorded on a photosensitive film or plate.

camera angle
the angle defined by the position of the subject matter in relation to the camera lens; viewpoint.

camera back
the paper/film-holding section of a process camera, used for holding photosensitive material to the filmback.

camera digital
photographic system using a charged-coupled device to transform visual information into pixels that are assigned binary codes, so they can be manipulated, compressed, stored, or transmitted as electronic files.

camera exposure
the subjecting of light rays reflected or transmitted by a subject being photographed, under controlled conditions of time and intensity, of a photosensitive film for the purpose of producing a latent image thereon.

camera lens
an arrangement of circular concave or convex pieces of glass that control incoming light rays by focusing them on a ground glass or photosensitive film.

camera mount
the trace or base where the camera is fixed or secured to eliminate vibration.

camera process
a camera designed to create a halftone image or color separations for photomechanical reproduction.

camera-ready art
(1) all printing elements prepared to be photographed; (2) an original design, completely finished as it is to appear in the reproduction.

cancellation proof
the final print in a fine art edition.

candela
a unit of measure indicting the amount of intensity developed by an artifical light.

candela per square meter
unit used to define luminous intesity of a light source

canopy easel
for simultaneously setting up a display card and supporting a canopy.

can top easel
an easel for display cards that are to be placed on top of round metal cans.

CAP
acroynm for cellulose acetate propionate.

capability analysis
study of the ability of a process to meet established requirements.

capability performance index (Cp)
a measure of the relationship between the allowable process spread (part tolerance) and the actual process spread (natural balance).

capability performance, lower (CPL)
a measure of the relationship between the performance of a process and the lower specification limit.

capability performance, upper (CPU)
a measure of the relationship between the performance of a process and the upper specification limit.

capacitance
the property of conductors and dielectrics to allow storage of an electrical charge when voltage is applied.

capacitor
an electrical circuit element consisting of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric or insulating material such as glass, ceramic, mica, or other non-conducting material used to store an electrical charge temporarily.

capillary action
the movement of a liquid with or against the law of gravity, into a very small opening, usually tubular in shape, or as in a surface of closely matted very fine fibers. (Liquid penetration and flow rate in porous surfaces is dependent on pressure, surface tension, and radius of the opening, among other factors).

capillary film
a presensitized, uniformly coated stencil film that is adhered to a water wet screen mesh under slight pressure through capillary action.

cap printing (bottle caps)
refer to bottle cap printer.

cap printing machine (textiles)
a specifically engineered device for printing onto the rounded surfaces of a cap using a flat or flexible curved screen.

capture
acquiring information, such as an image, with a scanner or digital-camera device.

carbon adsorption
ability of treated carbon to attract and retain on its surface structure toxic vapors, such as from organic solvents.

carbon arc
a light source of high actinic value, contains two carbon rods spaced slightly apart at the tips through which passes an electric current that bridges the gap between the tips, the resulting arc emits light extremely high in actinic value. (Note:Carbon arc lamps were once used for exposing photo stencil films and emulsions, but they have been largely replaced by other types of exposure units.)

carbon arc lamp
refer to carbon arc.

carbon black
an intensely black, finely divided pigment obtained by burning natural gas or petroleum oil with a restricted air supply used for formulatting black ink; aso refer to channel black.

carbon dust
fine granules of carbon residue resulting from the oxidation of the carbon rods while arcing in a carbon arc light unit.

carbon entrapment
darkening of applied color labeling enamel and/or development of spongy structure due to sintering of a glass enamel before the vehicle is completely oxidized.

carbon/graphite ink
a specially prepared suspension of carbon black used when the conductivity of a metal base system is not required, often printed over silver circuitry to reduce silver migration.

carbonized mesh
monofilament screen mesh with threads that have been treated with carbon or have carbon cores to prevent the buildup of static electricity through friction.

carbon rods
cylindrical rods made of carbon granules bound together into a solid form for use in carbon arc lamp.

carbon tissue
a dyed or pigmented gelatin-based photographic material coated onto a paper support that is exposed, developed, and adhered to the screen printing mesh forming a stencil.

carbon tissue process
the technique involved in making a screen printing stencil of carbon tissue film by exposure of the sensitized sheet and subsequent development and adhesion to the screen printing mesh.

carborundum
an abrasive solution of silicon carbide, the finer grade of which is used to abrade the surface of monofilament mesh.

carcinogen
any substance that has the ability to cause cancer in a living organism.

cardboard
layers of paper laminated into sheets of varying thickness, generally 0.006 inch (0.15 mm) or greater.

carding
(1) the removal of foreign matter, short fibers, seed, and tangles from cotton before it is spun; (2) process of cleaning ink off the screen mesh after a print run.

caret mark
a symbol (_) indicating where an omission in the copy should be inserted.

carnival glass
an iridescent decoration produced by applying metallic salt over a glass body.

carousel
a multicolor screen printing device that typically has multiple platens that rotate around a central shaft.

carriage
A scanner’s imaging head that moves down a page to capture an image. Also called optical-imaging element, optical-imaging head.

carrier
refer to backing sheet.

carrier frame
device on the press that supports the printing screen frame during the press operation.

car-sign board
a special grade of cardboard with a waste paper middle and liners of chemical wood pulp and/or shavings used chiefly for transit advertising posters.

car topper
a display that can be attached to the top of a car or truck either permanently or temporarily for either show room or street use.

CAS
Computer-Aided Sign-Making. Refers to sign-related software and computer-driven, sign-making equipment.

casein
a protein substance usually obtained from milk used to make sizings, adhesives, and as a binder for aqueous pigment dispersion.

cast (plastic sheeting)
(1) application of liquid plastic resins onto a moving belt or precipitating into a chemical bath to form a sheet; (2) an item shaped in a mold while in fluid or plastic state.

cast coated paper
heavy clay coated paper dried under pressure against a polished cylinder to produce a highly glossy finish.

cast film
plastic sheeting formed by spreading a molten mixture on a carrier sheet or web, baking at high temperatures to remove solvents, and fusing the material into a sheet.

cast vinyl
(1) vinyl sheeting manufactured by coating the liquid compound onto a substrate, usually a polished chrome plated sheet, where it remains until it sets to form the plastic sheet; (2) compounds such as vinyl chloride, vinyl acetate or similar esters, formed or molded into specified shapes,and sheets.

casting
the act of pouring slip into a mold; process of filling a plaster, metal, or sand mold to create an object.

catalyst
a substance that alters, initiates, or accelerates the velocity of a reaction between two or more substances without changing its chemical composition.

catalyzed system
chemical compound, ink, or coating that contains a catalyst.

cationic cure
occurs when an energized molecule reacts with cationically sensitive monomers to initiate polymerization.

cause-and-effect diagram
a fishbone diagram used to determine the root cause of a problem, uses a graphic description of various process elements in order to analyze potential sources of process variation.

caustic
a chemical that can burn, eat away or destroy tissue.

CCD (Charged Coupled Device)
light-detection device used in many popular scanners, digital cameras, and video cameras that generates electrical current in direct proportion to how much light strikes areas of the sensor.

CCD array
an arrangement of CCD sensors mounted in close proximity that allows for the simultaneous capturing of many pixels with one exposure.

CE mark
indicates product meets European Union for Standardization product safety testing requirements.

ceiling limit
a definite upper boundry, beyond which concentrations, such as of air contaminants, should not be permitted to exceed.

cell
a small etched depression in a gravure cylinder that carries the ink.

cellosolve
trade name for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, a relatively slow drying solvent used as a retarder.

cellosolve acetate
an acetate solvent used to test for full cure of plastisol ink. is

cellulose
a natural high polymeric carbohydrate derived from plant cell walls such as cotton, jute, and hemp.

cellulose acetate (CA)
a thermoplastic resin manufactured by the action of acetic acid and acetic anhydride on purified cellulose obtained from cotton linters.

cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)
a thermoplastic resin manufactured by the action of a mixture of acetic and butyric acids and their anhydrates on pyrified cellulose.

cellulose nitrate (CN)
a thermoplastic resin manufactured by the nitration of cotton linters with mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acids. (The first flexible transparent film base).

cellulose acetate propionate (CAP)
a thermoplastic resin manufactured by reacting cellulose with propionic acid and propionic anhydride.

cellulosics
thermoplastic resins manufactured by chemical modification of cellulose.

Celsius
formerly known as Centigrade, a thermal scale for measuring heat and/or cold temperature, more widely used than the Fahrenheit scale in scientific and other laboratory work with a freezing point of zero.

cement exposing method
an exposing technique involving the temporary securing of the film positive or hand made positive to the photoscreen film with rubber cement prior to exposure.

CEN
abbreviation for European Committee for Standardization.

centi
a prefix utilized in the metric system of measurement that denotes 10 to the negative 2 power (10-2) or 0.01, abreviated c.

Centigrade
refer to Celsius.

centigram
a unit of weight in the metric system that is equal to 1/100 of a gram; abbreviated cg.

centimeter
a unit of measure in the metric system of measurement equivalent to 1/100 of a meter or 0.3927 inch; abbreviated is cm.

centimeter, cubic
refer to cubic centimeter.

centimeter, square
refer to square centimeter.

centipoise
a unit of measure of viscosity equal to one hundredth (0.01) of a poise, the viscosity of water at 20° C.

centistoke
a unit of measure of kinematic viscosity.

central line
a line on a control chart that depicts the average or median value of the terms plotted.

centrifugal force
a force exerted on an object moving in a circular path which is directed away from the center of rotation.

centripetal force
a force exerted on an object moving in a circular path which is directed inward toward the center of rotation.

CEPS (Color Electronic Prepress)
a high-end digital publishing system specifically designed for color correction and image assembly.

ceramic
technology concerned with the manufacture of products from inorganic, non-metallic substances, and materials that are subjected to a high temperature during manufacture or use.

ceramic coating
an inorganic, essentially non-metallic, coating suitable for use at or above red heat.

ceramic enamel
a vitreous coating that is fused at elevated temperature to a ceramic or glass substrate.

ceramic ink
an ink containing ceramic pigments and flux that is applied to ceramic substrate.

ceramic substrate
wafers, chips, or other forms such as steatite compositions used for printed electronic circuitry.

CERCLA
acroynm for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (US).

cermet
derived from “ceramic” and “metal”; (1) a material composed of processed ceramic particles bonded with metal and used for high temperature applications; (2) a film, or coating, screen printed with formulations of conductive and insulating materials onto a ceramic substrate.

cerment run summary
a data sheet bearing all technical specifications, instructions, etc., including that developed in targeting and production runs in thick film circuit production, that identifies each specific job; a guide sheet of specs and values of a thick film circuit.

certificate
a written statement stating an organization’s procedures or material complies with a set of standards or requirements.

certificate of compliance (C of C)
a certificate generated by a quality control department confirming that a product or material meets a certain standard or requirement.

certification
the verification that specific training or testing has been performed and that required proficiencies or parameter values have been attained.

certification mark
a mark used by a person other than the owner of the mark, certifying origin, quality, material or other characteristics. Example: ILGWU (International Ladies Garment Workers Union) label.

CFM
abbreviation for cubic feet per minute.

CFR
acroynm for the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations that is maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.USA.

cg
abbreviation fore centigram.

CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile)
a vector-based standard for graphics files that allows images to be transferred between applications.

chain dot
refer to elliptical dot.

chain marks
impression caused by support systems used to convey a substrate through the heat cycle.

chain stitch
a stitch formed by a hook that acts as a needle and one thread that is fed from the bottom side of the fabric.

chair easel (single wing easel)
a display easel with a single fold-out support section that can be locked at a 90 degree angle to the back of a display card.

chalking
a screen printed ink where the pigment is not properly bound to the substrate and can be easily rubbed off in the form of a powder, common with exposure to the elements.

channel
a component of a digital image that carries the data for a color component or a mask.

channel black
carbon black produced by impinging a natural gas flame against a metal surface.

channel connector
a display part used for connecting two attached planes.

channel rubber
small rubber channel to insulate the wire mesh from the metal frame of an electrically heated or hot printing screen.

channel support
a display part for attaching landscaped part of a display in a forward position.

character
a single letter, symbol or numerical designation.

characteristic curve
a photographic term, referring to a graph of relative response on the part of photographic materials to varying amounts of light.

character generation
constructing typographic images electronically as a series of dots, lines, or pixels on a CTR (cathode ray tube) screen.

chase
(1) a frame with a means of mesh attachment designed to hold tensioned screen mesh, usually made of tubular or channel aluminum, but can also be made from steel and wood; (2) a rectangular metal frame where cutting dies, type, or other design element is locked up for printing or finishing.

chatter
a phenomenon that can occur while sharpening a squeegee resulting in a jagged edge due to improper grinding procedures.

check, checking
refer to crazing.

checking
fine hairline cracks in a dried coating film which begin at the surface and progress downward.

checkout rack
a display fixture that is placed near or at the checkout area in a supermarket.

chessy
under cured, used in evaluating the degree of cure in a plastisol ink film.

chemical fixation
a hazardous waste treatment process involving reactions between certain chemicals, resulting in solids which encapsulate, immobilize, or otherwise tie up components in the waste, thus minimizing the leaching of hazardous components and rendering the waste nonhazardous or more suitable for disposal.

chemical glass
a chemically durable glass suitable for making laboratory apparatus.

chemical lubricant
plasticizers and waxes of monomeric or polymeric structure that lubricate between micro-molecules in plastics and increase flexibility.

chemical milling (chemical machining): a process of producing very small precise shape in metal that is usually too fragile to withstand machine shaping. (A resist is printed on the metal foil in the design desired and the excess, unprotected metal is then etched away).

chemical microscopy
method employed to identify material components, analyzing defects caused by dyes and finishes, determining the size and distribution of particles in paper, plastics, coatings, powders, resins and starches, and to obtain asbestos filament counts.

chemical name
the standard name used for a substance.

chemical resistance
the resistance of an ink film or imprint to deteriorating from exposure to or immersion in chemicals of specified type under specified conditions.

chemical vapor drying
the hardening and setting of the surface of a printed ink film with a gaseous mixture of elements instead of heat.

chemistry
generic use referring to chemicals used in a darkroom.

chill mark
a wrinkled surface condition on glassware resulting from uneven cooling in the forming process.

china
a dense porous white opaque glazed or unglazed vitrerous ceramic whiteware.

china clay
natural white inorganic mineral pigment used in paper coatings and as an ink extender.

china wood oil
refer to tung oil.

chipboard
an inexpensive single ply paperboard manufactured from mixed waste papers to a low density, used whenever durability or appearance are not important factors.

chips (wafers)
(1) factory formed substrate on which electronic circuits are printed, usually a formulation including alumina, with high heat resistance; (2) a fingernail-sized chip of silicon that carries circuitry.

chlorinated solvent
a family of solvents made up of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine, or carbon and chlorine. (Chlorinated solvents have high solvent strength for oils and fats not ordinarily dissolved by the esters, ketones, or alcohols).

choke
a process whereby an image is made smaller in size without changing its shape or position.

chroma
(1) intensity or strength of a color, the degree of brightness or brilliance; (2) the extent that a color is diluted by white light; (3) its saturation or degree of departure from black and white; (4) hue or color information.

Chromalin™
A color proofing system by DuPont.

chromatic
perceived as having hue; not white, gray, or black.

chromatic attributes
those attributes associated with the spectral distribution of light.

chromaticity
a color specification that is indicated by dominant wavelength and purity.

chrominance
The portions of a signal that are dedicated to describing the hue and saturation. Used in measuring the difference between two colors of equal brightness.

chromatone
a photographic color print process.

chrome green
an opaque green pigment that is fairly light resistant, made by mixing freshly precipitated iron blue and chrome yellow.

chrome yellow
a light resistant opaque yellow pigment composed essentially of lead chromate.

chromic acid treatment
an acid bath treatment for polyolefins (polypropylene, polyethylene), in preparation for coating, bonding, or printing.

chromium
in photosensitive process, a blue-white metallic element compound which is used as a bleaching or hardening agent.

chromium tanning
the changing by action of actinic light, of polyvinyl alcohol films, coatings, or emulsions containing potassium bichromate or ammonium bichromate that results in the PVA becoming insoluble in water.

chronic
a toxic effect that results from exposure to a toxic material over a long period of time.

chronic effect
refers to the adverse health effects that develop over a long period of time or upon repeated/prolonged exposure to a hazardous material.

chuck
a holding jig or fixture for three-dimensional ware, used to position the object to be decorated.

CIE — Commission International de l’Eclairange
a set of color standards based on mathematical modeling of human vision and light, CIE color spaces are used for the communication of color independent of a specific device.

CIE chromaticity coordinates (Trichomatic Coefficients or Trilinear Coordinates):
the ratios of each of the tristimulus values of a color to the sum of the tristimulus values. (In the CIE systems they are designated by x, y, and z).

CIE chromaticity diagram
two-dimensional graph of the chromaticity coordinates, x as the abscissa and y as the ordinate, which shows the spectrum locus (chromaticity coordinates of monochromatic light 380 to 700nm).

CIE L*a*b*
scale adopted by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to serve as a worldwide standard for color measurement.

CIE LAB (L*a*b*)
a color model to approximate human vision consisting of three variables: L* for luminosity, a* for one color axis, and b* for the other color axis; the most widely used and recognized color matching system for describing colors with numbers.

CIE luminosity function
a plot of the relative magnitude of the visual response as a function of wavelength from 389 to 780 nm adopted by CIE in 1924.

CIE LUV (CIE L*u*v*)
color space in which values L*,u* and v* are plotted at right angles to one another to form a three dimensional coordinate system with equal distances in the space approximately represent equal color differences.

CIE standard illuminants
known spectral data established by CIE for four different types of light sources.

CIE standard observer
a hypothetical observer having the tristimulus color mixture data recommended in 1931 by the CIE to a 2º viewing angle. (If not specified the 2º standard observer should be used. If field of view is larger than 4º the 10º standard observer adopted in 1964 should be used).

CIE tristimulas values
the amount of the three reference or matching stimuli required to give a match with the color stimulus considered in a given trichromatic system.

circle cutter
a compass fitted with a sharp blade for cutting perfect circles.

circuit
(1) electronic path between two or more points; (2) number of conductors, interconnected for the purpose of carrying an electric current.

circuit pattern
the configuration of components, their interconnecting printed wiring, as printed to form an electronic circuit, or as designated by an electronics engineer.

circular screen
a circular halftone screen which may be rotated to allow multiple screen angle selection without having to reposition copy.

cissing
a defect where a wet ink or varnish recedes from small areas of the surface leaving either no coating or an attenuated one.

citric acid
an organic acid used in testing the acid resistance of ceramic colors.

clamshell press
(1) a heat transfer machine/die cutting machine with two platens, one directly over the over and hinged together on one side to open and close like a clam’s shell; (2) a flatbed screen printing press designed with the screen carriage hinged to the printing table at one end.

clarifier
(1) an additive that increases the transparency of an ink or other material; (2) a settling tank where solids are mechanically removed from process waste water.

clarity
the characteristic of a transparent material such that distinct images may be observed through it.

clay coated board
display board with excellent print acceptance and brilliant white color manufactured in a variety of thickness, coated on one or both sides with an earthy material to improve the quality of the printing surface.

cleanroom
an enclosed area where airborne particles, temperature, relative humidity and pressure are controlled to specified requirements.

clear coat
transparent protective coating applied over a screen printed image to ensure maximum durability.

clear frit
a frit that remains essentially transparent when processed into a porcelain enamel.

clear glaze
a transparent colorless ceramic glaze.

clear ink coat
a colorless printable compound of varnish or transparent material.

clear vinyl
vinyl plastic formulated so that the resulting sheet or film is transparent.

clearance
the smallest distance separating conductive parts at a specified setting on a membrane switch.

clearing
a process of removing fog from the film negative or positive during development.

clearing agent
a chemical that neutralizes hypo in film or paper processing, thereby reducing washing time and producing a more stable image.

cleat
a strip of wood or metal used to strengthen a sign, display, or other construction.

cliche
a photoengraved pad printing plate made of steel or plastic.

clip
a display part used for attaching small items to the back of a display.

clipping
the grouping (usually unwanted) of all tones or colors above or below a certain value into one composite tone.

clip art
previously developed designs and graphics used in composing artwork, copyright free and/or purchased for a fee.

clogging
(1) premature drying of ink in the screen mesh that blocks portions of the stencil; (2) a restriction of the passage of a material through application equipment.

cloning
retouching function on a color imaging system used to remove image defects by replacing pixels in the defective area with duplicate pixels from adjacent non-defective areas.

closeness of control
total variation from a desired set point; also referred to as as amplitude of deviation.

close tolerance printing
screen printing with extreme precision in relation to dimensions and/or placement of design elements, as in electronic circuits.

CLUT (Color Look-Up Table)
a color-management software reference file that maintains the proper calibration of devices, such as monitors, printers and scanners. (See also, LUT.)

cm
abbreviation for centimeter.

cm2
abbreviation for square centimeter.

cm3
abbreviation for cubic centimeter.

CMC
abbreviation for the Society of Dyes and Colourists in Great Britain.

CMS
acronym for Color Management System.

CMY (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow)
The three subtractive primary colors used in color negative printing, and some output devices, to produce a full gamut of color.

CMYK
acronym for cyan, magenta, yellow, black.

CN
acronym for cellulose nitrate.

coagulation
the transition of a coating material from colloid to the solid state through precipitation.

coalescence
the joining or unifying of liquid films or adhesives.

Coalition of Northern Governors (US)
proposed and enacted regulations adopted by many states that limits lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium to 100ppm total in packaging materials and printing inks.

coarse mesh
screen printing mesh with low mesh count and large openings or apertures between the woven threads or strands.

coated cloth
fabric which has been back coated with rubber or plastic to impart moisture resistance and longer wear.

coated lens
a camera lens that has been coated with an ultra-thin film, usually bluish in color to minimize glare or flare from extraneous lights not a color correction method.

coated paper
paper with a very thin clay coating on one or both sides of the sheet (C1S/C2S) with a finish ranging from eggshell to glossy.

coated screen
a printing screen with direct emulsion applied to the mesh prior to exposing.

coater
refer to scoop coater.

coating
(1) an unbroken clear film applied to a substrate in layers to protect and seal it or to make it glossy; (2) a screen printed material, pigmented or clear; applied to a substrate and forming a continuous film.

coating mottle
a small variation in gloss that can be detected on a coated, calendered sheet by viewing the sheet at an angle to check for specular reflection from the surface.

coating pigments
mineral materials used for coating paper stock such as clay, (the most common), talc, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide.

coating screen
a printing screen designed to print a solid layer of clear varnish or ink over a large predetermined area, usually used for applying color to backgrounds of displays or similar uses.

coating weight
the mass of an applied coating per square unit of surface area sometimes referred to as mass weight.

cobalt drier
a liquid material containing chemically combined cobalt, used to accelerate oxidation and polymerization of an ink film, promotes drying.

cobb test
a method used to measure the water absorption of seized paper by determining the weight of water absorbed through one surface under pressure.

cobwebbing
fine filaments or strings resembling cobwebs that project at random from the edge of the ink or coating on the substrate.

cockle
(1) an irregular lump in a fabric thread; (2) a desirable paper finish in cotton fiber sheets produced by air drying paper with contolled tension..

cockling
an undesirable effect in paper identified by the uneven, rippled appearance of the paper surface caused by improper drying.

coefficient of thermal expansion – linear
(1) the fractional part of its length that a material elongates when raised one degree Celsius in temperature; (2) fractional change in length or volume of a material divided by the change in temperature.

C of C
acroynm for certificate of compliance.

cohesion
(1) mutual attraction of elements that bind the particles of an ink or varnish film together; (2) the ability of an adhesive to resist splitting; (3) the forces holding a single substance together.

cohesive failure
the rupture of an adhesive bond such that the separation appears to be within the adhesive.

cohesive strength (cohesion)(internal bond): the internal strength of an ink or adhesive, due to the mutual attraction force between like molecules.

cold-cathode lamp
a low pressure UV germicidal lamp, refer to germicidal lamp.

cold color
(1) an organic enamel for glass decorating that is baked at a low temperature, usually under 260 degrees C (500 degrees F); (2) a bluish or greenish hue.

cold cracking
deterioration of a plastic from cold temperatures causing stiffness and even brittleness, breaking or shattering under stress as temperature is lowered.

cold curing
the process of curing at normal atmospheric temperature.

cold end
packing end of a lehr or intake end of conveyor dryer where heat is used to aid drying.

cold flow (ooze): the viscous flow of a pressure sensitive adhesive under pressure or other stress, at room temperature; also refer to creep.

cold peel
procrss where the release paper of a plastisol transfer is not removed until the heat of application has dissipated.

cold setting ink
solid ink that is melted and applied as a liquid through a heated printing screen,solidifying again on contact with the substrate that is not heated.

cold weather adhesive
an adhesive formulated to be usable at 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) or other specified low temperature.

collapsible channel
a display part that forms a channel for setting up but collapses flat for shipping.

collapsible shadow box
a shadow box with top, bottom, and collapsible apron.

collate
the gathering of printed sheets into an organized sequence.

collective mark
a distinctive mark or symbol identifying an association, fraternal society, or membership in a trade union such as SGIA, SME, ASI, and AFL/CIO.

collodion film paper
a backing paper coated with a water soluble film used in ceramic decal production, where screen printing is done on the surface of the collodion film.

collodion process
a method of photography where a glass plate is coated with salted (iodized) negative collodion and sensitized by immursion in an acidified silver nitrate solution and exposed in a moist condition.

colloid
water-soluble, non-crystalline substances such as gelatin, glue, or albumen, of very fine granule size, used as vehicles in photomechanical sensitizers in screen printing and made light-sensitive by the addition of a bichromate.

colloid mill
a machine used for the dispersion of pigments that produces intense shearing stress in the liquid to which the solid pigments have been added, used in ink manufacturing.

collotype
a printing process in which a glass plate with a gelatin surface carries the image to be produced.

color
(1) a visual sensation produced in the brain when the eye views various wavelengths of light; (2) the appearance of objects or light sources described in terms of individual’s perception of them, involving hue, lightness, and saturation for objects, and hue, brightness, and saturation for light sources.

color attribute
three dimensional characteristics of the appearance or an object; one dimension defines the lightness, the other two together define chromaticity.

color balance
(1) correct combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow needed to reproduce an original without unwanted color variation; (2) the specific combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow needed to produce a neutral gray in the color separation process.

color bar
a measurement device printed in the trim area consisting of test targets to measure print attributes such as dot gain, density, slur, doubling, contrast, and trapping.

color blend
refer to blends, split fountain.

color burn out
an objectionable change in the color of a printing ink which may occur either in bulk or after application to the substrate that is caused by a chemical reaction between certain components in the ink formula or by the generation of heat in a pile of freshly printed material during drying.

color cards (color charts)
a reference sheet or folder exhibiting a range of colors from which selection of ink, paper, films or other commodities may be selected in the desired hue.

color calibration
a system of software and/or hardware that adjusts and coordinates colors between two or more digital devices. Color calibration systems commonly compare device color profiles and translate one color model into a device-independent language.

color compression
shrinking the color gamut of the original to the color gamut a device will represent.

color correction
(1) a photographic, electronic, or manual procedure used to compensate for the deficiencies in process inks and color separations; (2) any change in color requested by the customer; (3) adjustment in color reproduction to compensate for color variations.

color curve
a graphic mechanism for displaying color measurements and for making color changes to an image. User adjustments to the angle and slope of the curve implement color changes to one or all of an image’s color channels.

color density
the opacity, purity, or brillance of a color.

color difference
the magnitude and character of the difference between two object colors viewed under specified conditions.

color dimension
hue, value, and intensity.

color fastness (color permanence)(color stability)
(1) the property of a screen printed or digital imprint to retain its color under normal storage or age conditions and to resist color change when exposed to light, heat, or other environmental influences; (2) ability of a dyed fabric to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight, or other environmental conditions.

color fidelity
the degree to which the printed piece matches the original art.

color filters
refer to filter, color.

color gamut
any color medium representing its own range of colors including that which is applied to film, a monitor, printed images, and the human eye.

color harmonies
the blending of hues, shades and tints to produce a pleasing effect.

color Hi-Fi
a special high fidelity color reproduction process based on the Küppers model that uses seven basic colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, orange, green, violet, and black instead of four to expand the color gamut of printing, separations are generated using stochastic screening technology to prevent moiré.

Color Key
a registered trademark of the 3M Company for an overlay color proofing system that allows the checking of registration and tint screen combinations in process color reproductions prior to actual press proofs.

Color Management System (CMS)
a combination of software and hardware devices to produce accurate color results throughout a digital imaging system.

color match
condition resulting when no significant difference in hue, saturation, and lightness can be detected between two color samples when examined under specified illumination and viewing conditions.

color matching functions
relative amounts of three additive primaries required to match each wavelength of light. The term is generally used to refer to the CIE Standard Observer color matching functions.

color model
a color measurement scale or system that numerically specifies the perceived attributes of color.

color OK sheets
the printed colors that have been approved for ink/color-matching.

color overlay
transparent film overlay usually made of acetate, which are superimposed over each other to represent each color in a reproduction.

color oxide
material used to impart color to a glass enamel.

color profile
also called device profile. This term refers to the relationship between the color models of the system devices.

color proofs
(1) first prints pulled before the production run to check selection, placement,and register of all colors in the composition to be printed, used to determine need for final correction or acceptance of print quality; (2) a representation of how the final printed composition will appear.

color retention
the property of a color to resist fading or other deterioration on exposure to light.

color saturation
color strength. A measure of color purity, or dilution by a neutral.

color separation
(1) separating the areas of a piece to be printed into its component spot and process ink colors; (2) a process using red, green, and blue filters to divide the colors of a multicolored original into the process colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black; (3) a photographic technique involving photographing original continuous tone colored art through a series of filters, each to provide negatives representing the colors used in rendering the original.

color sequence
the order in which colors are printed onto a substrate.

color space
a three-dimensional geometric representation of the colors that can be seen and/or generated using a certain color model.

color specification
tristimulus values, chromaticity coordinates, luminance value, or other color scale values used to designate a color numerically in a specific color system.

color standard
a printed ink sample, proof, or press sheet to which another similar material is compared.

color strength
in printing ink, the concentration of coloring pigment per unit of weight or volume.

color swatch
any piece of paper or cloth, printed or unprinted used for color matching or measurement of color.

color system
a concept that relates colors for description or reproduction. Models in imaging include CIE, PMS and Photo YCC, among others.

color temperature
(1) a measure of the energy distribution over the visible spectral range of a light source with a continuous spectrum, expressed in degrees Kelvin (K); the temperature at which an object emits its specific wavelength of light in degrees Kelvin (K); (2) manufacturer’s method of indicating the color of a light source in degrees Kelvin (K) (2700K yellow/white, 4100K white, 5500K blue/white).

color toner
an ink formulation intermixed with another formulation to control the appearance of the final imprint. (Toner colors are not intended for printing alone as compounded), also refer to tinter.

color transparency
(1) a full color photograph on transparent film; (2) full color manually drawn design rendered in transparent colors to permit light transmission through the film and color layers, can be used in displays by back lighting, or as a photographic subject by transmitted, rather than reflected light; (3) a transparent film screen printed with translucent inks.

color trapping
refer to trapping of ink.

color variation
(1) a changes in a color that occur in density of color during printing; (2) changes in the density of color caused by variations in the amount of ink accepted by the substrate or by the amount of ink delivered to the substrate.

color volume
the ink-holding capacity of all the mesh openings in one square meter of stretched screen mesh.

color wheel
the visible spectrum’s continuum of colors arranged into a circle, where complementary colors such as red and green are located directly across from each other.

colors, primary
the three basic colors, properly selected and mixed, produce any hue. (The three primary light (spectral) colors are red, green, and blue; the three primary ink colors are cyan, magenta, and yellow).

colorant
a substance used to create colors, dyes, pigments, toners, waxes, and phosphors.

colorimeter
a device for measuring color values; an optical measurement instrument that responds to color in a manner similar to the human eye by filtering reflected light into its dominate regions of red, green, and blue.

colorimetric purity
the ratio of the luminosity of the spectrum color to the luminosity of the mixture of illuminate and spectrum color that matches the color of the specimen viewed by the illuminate alone.

combination stencil
refer to direct/indirect photoscreen stencil.

combing
the process for removing short fibers and impurities from fabric that has been carded, generates a softer hand or feel.

combining
contacting different negatives such as a line shot and halftone shot to the same sheet of film in proper position and register.

combustible liquid
a liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees C (100 degrees F), but below 93.3 degrees C (200 degrees F).

combustion
rapid oxidation or burning.

combustion chamber
enclosure where fuel is burned to provide heat; (2) part of a furnace or kiln.

combustion product
matter resulting from combustion such as flue gases, ash, and water vapor.

commercial register
in process color reproduction, an allowable misregister, not more than one row of dots.

common cause
a source of variation that effects all the individual values of the output of a process.

compatibility
the ability of ink, film, substrate, and/or solvents to function together in harmony.

complementary colors
reference to the Munsell color wheel, any color directly opposite from a selected color is complementary to the chosen color, including tints and tones. (Complementary colors neutralize or accentuate each other, diminishing or enhancing the attention value of the print).

complement
two colors that, when combined create neutral gray.

compliance colors (non-toxic colors): inks that conform to US governmental regulations by not containing any of the banned heavy metal salts.

compliance date
the date that a business is required to meet applicable pollution control requirements (US).

component
an ingredient in a formulation; a part of the whole.

composing stick
a hand tool where foundry type is assembled and justified.

composite
(1) an art layout where all color separations are shown in one piece of copy, usually black and white; (2) a homogeneous material created by the synthetic assembly of two or more materials to obtain specific characteristics and properties.

compound
(1) a combination of elements in a stable molecular arrangement; (2) to mix pure vinyl with plasticizers, stabilizers, lubricants, colorants, or other ingredients before it can be properly processed.

comprehensive art
refer to art work, comprehensive.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA):
a US federal program enacted and designed to cleanup identified environmentally damaged sites, commonly referred to as the Superfund Program.

compression
the process of removing irrelevant information and reducing unneeded space from a file in order to make the file smaller. Compression can cause losses and distortion, depending on the method.

compression molding
plastic molding process where the molding material is liquefied in the mold, shaped, and cured under pressure before being ejected, typically used with thermoset plastics.

compressive strength
the maximum ability of a solid material to withstand a compressive load; resistance to crushing or shattering.

Computer Aided Design (CAD) or Graphics (CAG)
system used to generate and reproduce full-color designs, artwork, photographs, etc., through use of a computer, plotter, printer, keyboard, etc.

computer graphics
the interactive production and layout of graphic material, text and images, by means of computer keyboard, light pen, digitizer, mouse, and other hardware/software integration.

conc
abbreviation for concentrated.

concentrated solution
a solution containing a large amount of solute in proportion to the solvent; refer to dilute solution.

concentration
the amount by percentage of a solute contained in a given amount of solution.

condensation resin
any of the alkyd, phenol-aldehyde, or urea formaldahyde resins.

condenser
refer to capacitor.

condenser enlarger
a type of enlarger using undiffused light to produce high contrast and high definition images.

conditional match
a color match that depends on present values of illumination and observation.

conditioning
the process of subjecting materials to specific temperature and humidity conditions for a stipulated period of time.

conduction
the transfer of energy through a material by passing it from molecule to molecule.

conductive ink
an ink for the screen printing of electronic circuits that contains materials that permitting electric current flow through a printed line or pattern.

conductivity
the quality or power to conduct or transmit electrical current.

conductor
an element or substance that has many free electrons permitting a free flow of electric energy within its mass.

conductor width
the width of a trace or line when printed on the substrate.

cone, seger
a three-sided pyrometric cone made from clay and chemicals and designed to bend at a specfied temperature, used for determining firing temperatures in a kiln.

confluence of ink
the flowing together of the tiny segments of ink deposited through a screen printing stencil into a solid, unbroken line.

conformability
the ability of a material to yield to the contours of a surface that is other than smooth and flat.

conformal coating
insulating coating applied to printed circuit board wiring assemblies that covers all of the components and provides protection against moisture, dust, and dirt.

conjunctivitis
a very painful condition of the eye or conjunctive – the inner lining of the eyelid – caused by harsh light exposure to a UV light source or the sun.

consecutive numbering
the identification of screen printed items by applying number in correct counting order.

consistency
(1) the relative stiffness (body) of an ink or coating; (2) describes the apparent viscosity of an ink or varnish when shearing forces of varying degrees are applied to it in various ways.

conspicuity
A highly reflective film, rendered in bright safety colors to enhance appearace under highway conditions.

const
abbreviation for constant.

constant viscosity
a property of certain liquids, the ratio of shear stress over shear rate being constant.

contact
a physical meeting of two continuous surfaces without trapping of air in between.

contact angle
an angle formed between two substances, as determined by their surface tensions, when in contact.

contact bounce
an intermittent opening and closing of a switch after actuation.

contact film
a blue sensitive continuous tone film with a relatively high maximum density, excellent resolution, and a special antihalation backing that allows exposure through its base without loss of quality.

contact print
a photographic print made from either a negative or a positive in contact with sensitized paper, film, or printing plate, producing same-size reproduction.

contact printing
(1) textile screen printing accomplished by printing with the screen in contact with the substrate across its entire surface; (2) photographically exposing a light sensitive material through a film negative or positive held in contact with the surface by vacuum or mechanical pressure.

contact resistance
the resistance through a membrane switch as measured between two terminals that complete a circuit.

contact resistance variation (CRS)
in electronics a condition caused by variance pressure of the wiper contact in variable resistance components.

contact screen
a photographic screen with dots of varying density that is placed in direct contact with a photographic film, used to produce halftone positives or negatives for making screen printing plates.

contact table
a table with a pressure or vacuum arrangement between two fixed surfaces, both of which are normally transparent, and usually with a light source opposite one surface for exposing purposes, into which two or more sheet materials can be made to come into positive contact for handling or processing by exposing.

container board
a paper board of good tensile strength and bending qualities, usually light weight.

container printing
the act of direct screen printing of cylinders or other three-dimensional objects of various shapes.

container printing machine
a screen printing press capable of printing on cylindrical or other three-dimensional part.

continuity
an uninterrupted circuit or trace line on an electronic product.

continuous dryer
a drying system where the ware, part, or object to be dried passes throuhg the dryer in a continuous and uninterrupted motion.

continuous film
that complete film formed when a coating dries, fuses, oxidizes, or reacts to its final point after being applied to a surface.

continuous tone
an image with gradient tones that has not been screened with tone gradations between the lightest highlight and the darkest shadows.

contract printing
(1) a type of textile screen printing where the customer provides the garments or piece goods to be printed; (2) a contractual arrangement where press or shop time is reserved for a specific customer.

contrast
the degree of tonal gradation between highlight and shadow areas in an original, reproduction, or negative.

contrast grade
a zero to five rating scale for photographic paper. (Zero has the lowest contrast and five the highest contrast level).

contrast ratio
(1) a measure of the opacity of a paper, ranging from 100% in a totally opaque stock to just a few percent in transparent stock such as tracing paper; (2) ratio of the reflectance of a dry ink or coating film, over a black substrate of 5% or less reflectance, to the reflectance of the same material applied in an identical manner over a substrate of 80% reflectance.

control chart
a graphic representation of a characteristic of a process showing plotted values of some statistic gathered from a characteristic graph,includes a central line, and one or two statistically derived control limits.

control limit
the maximum allowable variation of a process characteristic due alone to common cause.

convection drying
the drying of screen printed items by the movement of currents of uneven temperatures.

convection oven
a heat chamber where air of elevated temperature is introduced and drying takes place under circulated heat conditions.

conventional ink
a color mixed composition with vehicle for liquid application to a substrate for aesthetic results, exceptions those containing frits or fluorescent pigments, or special purpose inks such as solder resists, conductive inks, and other designed for functional results.

conversion
in computer imaging to change an RGB file to a CMYK or vice versa; to convert one file format to another.

conversion coating
a coating process that is applied to paper or board after maufacturing such as coated paper.

converter
company or individual that finishes fabric to buyer’s specifications.

conveyor dryer
an ink drying system which incorporates a drying chamber with a belt conveyor.

cool colors
blues, grays and greens, not suggesting warmth, but cool places, such as water, ice, and sky.

cooling zone
that portion of a drying system where dried products are cooled before being removing from the system.

copolymer
(1) mixture produced from a combination of two or more different monomers; also refer to polymer; (2) a graphic overlay film composed of polyester and polycarbonate polymers.

copy area
(1) the portion of a printing screen containing the image to be printed; (2) the area of a sign or display that carries the message.

copy board (copy holder)
a frame that holds original copy while it is being photographed on a camera or digitally scanned.

copy camera
refer to process camera.

copy distortion
extending, condensing, slanting, outlining or otherwise changing the original copy to fit space or mood.

copy modification
the elongation, slanting, outlining, expanding, condensing, or otherwise changing a piece of original copy to fit a design, pattern, or mood.

copyright ©
a person’s exclusive right to reproduce, publish, or sell his or her original work of authorship; a legal document that protects published or unpublished works that are fixed in a tangible medium of expression from reproduction, extends for the life of the creator of the work plus fifty years after his or her death.

cord
a deflect of a glossy inclusion differing in composition from the surrounding glass; (2) the rope like material used with cord-and-groove screen frames.

cord-and-groove
method used for making screens where a rope like material is forced down into a dado cut in a wooden frame, securing the mesh to the frame; no longer used in the industry.

core
(1) the center tube of varying diameter on which paper and other substrates are wound; (2) a honeycombed or similar construction used in laminating display boards, corrugated board, etc.

corner box
a simple gauge for maintaining register while mounting thin sheets to heavy stock or any similar operation.

corner hook
a clamp or clip device for connecting parallel display parts.

corner softening
the process of reducing the high tension area in the corners of the screen mesh to evening out the tension across the entire screen prior to tensioning by adjusting the corners with small controlled adjustments.

corona discharge
an electrical, plastic treating method whereby the atmosphere (corona) around the substrate is ionized, encouraging oxidation and reducing surface tension to improve ink adhesion.

correlated noise
a recognizable pattern of change in an image file; an increase in the brightness of the pixels.

corrosive material
(1) a chemical liquid or solid that causes visible damage or irreversible change in human skin tissue at the site of contact after an exposure period of 4 hours or less; (2) a liquid where its corrosion rate exceeds 0.250 inch per year on steel (SAE1020) at a test temperature of 54 degrees C (130 degrees F).

corrugated board
a laminate made from flat sheets with fluted, ridged, or grooved center core.

co-solvent
one of two or more solvents in a mixture that combine to dissolve a solid.

cotton
a unicellular, natural vegetable fiber obtained from seed pod of cotton plant.

cotton fiber content paper
refer to rag content.

counter display
a specially designed cardboard advertising piece that is displayed at a primary counter or checkout location.

counterbalanced squeegee
a squeegee with a weight similar to the weight of the squeegee, placed on the opposite side of a pivot, to absorb all or part of the actual weight of the squeegee, reducing operator fatigue.

coupling agent
chemical or material that promotes improved adhesion between fiber and matrix resin in a reinforced composite such as an epoxy-glass laminate or other resin fiber laminate.

course
horizontal lines or threads in woven material.

covalent bond
a bond where one or pairs of electrons are equally shared between two atoms producing a stable electron configuration and a very stable molecule. (The strongest of all molecular bonds).

coverage (mileage)(spreading power): the amount of area a given volume of ink will cover when applied to a given substrate.

covered recess joint
a construction frequently used in V-shaped displays.

covering power
(1) the ability of an ink to hide the substrate and produce a uniform opaque surface; (2) the maximum ability of a lens to form a sharp focused image.

cover paper
large category of papers so named because they primarily serve the function of covering and protecting other printed matter.

cover sheet
a clear transparent overlay used to protect artwork from damage during handling.

Cp
abbreviation for capability performance.

CPI
an abbreviation for characters per inch.

CPL
acronym for characters per line or capability performance, lower.

CPSC.
acronym for Consumer Product Safety Commission (US).

CPU
acronym for capability performance, upper.

CQI
acronym for continuous quality improvement.

cracking
a breakdown in which cracks penetrate at least one coat of an ink layer and which may be expected to result ultimately in complete failure.

crackle
an intentional effect that is given to ware to heighten its age and give a particular design similar to broken or cracked glass.

crank
a refractory piece contoured to the shape of the back of a bisc plate to aid in keeping the piece flat during firing.

cratering
small undesirable depressions (pinholes) in a dried ink film that can be deep enough to expose the substrate.

crawling
(1) a condition that occurs when a glaze becomes extremely viscous in the molten stage causing the glaze to collect in heaps; (2) cohesive effect of ink into drops after printing onto a surface that the ink does not completely wet; (3) the pulling away of a coating from its original dimension, see creep.

crazing
(1) a cracking that occurs in a fired glaze; (2) a random pattern of minute intersecting cracks in plastic or glass article; (3) very fine hairline cracks in a dried coating or screen printed film.

creaseability
the ability to be creased or folded without the appearance of cracks, sharp lines or bending failure.

crease
(1) a straight line fold; (2) a dent in wire cloth mesh.

crease score
refer to scoring.

creep
(1) the lateral movement (cold flow) of an applied pressure sensitive label due to low cohesive strength; (2) the spontaneous spreading of liquid on a surface beyond the area for which it was intended; (3) deformation or dimensional change with time of a plastic under load resulting from prolonged application of stress below the elastic limit.

creeping
the tendency of an insufficiently stretched screen mesh to move in the direction of the squeegee travel during the print stroke.

cresol
an isomeric phenol used to improve indirect stencil adhesion by attacking the nylon mesh causing it to be tacky and swollen. (Used very seldom as it weakens the mesh and has been found to be toxic).

CRI
abbreviation for cure rate index.

crimp
(1) to fold and fasten a joint under pressure; (2) a wavy fiber or yarn structure in a fabric.

crinkle
a textural effect on enamel surface having the appearance of fine wrinkles or ridges.

crizzle
an imperfection of many fine surface fractures in the surface of the fired ink; (2) an imperfection of fine surface cracks in a glass article.

crock
a measure of resistance to deterioration of an imprint on fabric by rubbing or abrasion.

crocking
the rubbing-off (wet or dry) of surface color, occurs when a dye or pigment is not adequately fixed in the substrate.

Cromalin
DuPont trade name for integral color proof.

crop
to opaque, mask, or trim part of an image to fit a designated area.

crop marks
sometimes referred to as tick marks, small marks placed in the margin, denoting the live area or areas of an image to be reproduced.

cropping
(1) indicates what portion of the image is to be included in the final reproduction; (2) trimming unwanted areas of a photographic film or print.

cross direction
the position across the grain or at a right angle to the machine direction.

cross hatch test
a test method used to determine how well an ink adheres to a substrate, refer to ASTM D3359 Ink Adhesion Test (US).

cross laminated
lamination made with layers of material applied at right angles over previously applied layers.

crossline screen
refer to levy screen.

cross linking
(1) a long chain, joining of molecules to form a change in the physical structure and properties of a material; (2) connecting crosswise in parallel chains the atoms or atomical groups in a complex molecule; (3) a chemical bridge formed between molecular chains to enhance internal film bond to a substrate.

cross-over
an intersection of conductors insulated by a dielectric material.

cross web
direction at an angle of 90 degrees to the grain or machine direction of a web of flexible material.

CRS
acroynm for contact resistance variation.

crystal base
a water clear additive for use in modifying viscosity of transparent screen printing ink in halftone screen printing.

crystal glass
a colorless highly transparent low transition temperature glass.

crystal ice
a crushed and sized flux or frit used in glass and ceramic decorating.

crystalline glaze
a glaze containing microscopic crystals.

crystallization
ink that fails to adhere over a previously printed and dried ink.

CSA
acroynm for the Canadian Standards Association.

CTE
acronym for coefficient of thermal expansion.

cu
abbreviation for cubic.

cubic centimeter
a measurement unit of volume in the metric system that is equal to the volume of a cube whose length, width and breadth each measure a centimeter, abbreviation is cm3.

cubic foot
a unit of volume that is equal to the volume of a cube whose length, width and breadth each measure a foot, abbreviation is ft3.

cubic inch
a unit of volume that is equal to the volume of a cube whose length, width and breadth each measure an inch, abbreviation is in3.

cubic meter
a unit of volume in the metric system of measurement that is equal to the volume of a cube whose length, width and breadth each measure a meter, abbreviation is m3.

cubic yard
a unit of volume that is equal to the volume of a cube whose length, width and breadth each measure a yard, abbreviation is yd3.

cullet
waste or broken glass suitable as an addition to a raw batch.

cure
(1) to convert a wet coating to its maximum dry film state; (2) the resolving of coating material into a useable state by heat, chemical action, or firing; refer to curing.

cure meter
instrument used to determine the curing characteristics of cross linking polymers, can also be used to measure setting time for resin.

cure rate index
a measurement rate at specific wavelengths and power level, usually measured in centimeters per minute/feet per minute.

cure time
the time/temperature combination required to bring organic decoration to the desired level of hardness, caustic, and chemical resistance.

curing
(1) a drying process usually requiring elevated temperature of film that cannot be dried by oxidation; (2) in textile decoration, the application of heat to set the emulsion of pigment dye into the textile fibers; (3) a two (or more) part chemical reaction that, when completed, resembles a dried appearance such as photopolymerization of UV curable coatings.

curing agent
an additive that promotes the curing of an ink or coating; a catalyst reactive agent that is added to a resin to cause polymerization.

curing oven
a chamber where drying and/or some change of a freshly printed ink surface takes place during the drying process, to improve adhesion, solidify the film or otherwise convert film characteristics by means other than by solvent evaporation.

curing unit
a UV curing reactor that houses a UV energy emitter used for the polymerization of ultraviolet curable inks, coatings, and adhesives.

curl
(1) the tendency of a sheet material by itself or in laminate to bend or partly wrap around the axis of one of its directions. (Uneven moisture absorption throughout the thickness is the usual cause, and conversely, removal of moisture by heat application can cause curling); (2) deformation of a paper sheet tending to form into a roll or cylinder, the roll effect appearing across the grain direction.

current, alternating (AC)
electric current that periodically reverses the direction of electron flow.

current, direct (DC)
electric current where the electrons flow in one direction.

curtain coater
a coating machine which spreads an even thickness of low viscosity liquid (clear or adhesive) across a flat sheet or surface.

curved screen
special screen mounted on flexible frame that can be mounted in a curved configuration, used to print rounded surfaces or objects.

custom printing
in textile printing, the type of work where the garment is furnished by the screen printer and not the customer.

cusum chart
a diagram that depicts cumulative deviation from a target.

cut
(1) to dilute or thin an ink, lacquer, or varnish with one or more solvents or clear base; (2) the shearing of stock with a knife blade; (3) photoengraving.

cut flock
refer to flock.

cut-off ink level
the top surface of a printed ink film as it sits on the upper surface of the stencil mesh after the squeegee passes in the print stroke, but before the screen mesh is lifted from contact with the substrate.

cutout
a halftone image where the background area has been removed to produce a silhouette.

cut pieces
pieces of fabric shaped by cutting to be sewn into a garment to form back, front, yoke, sleeves, cuffs, etc.

cut score
refer to scoring.

cutaway
a backing or facing that must be cut away from the fabric to remove it from the embroidery.

cutter
refer to guillotine.

cutter and creaser
a fully automatic press that slices and scores light weight paperboard.

cutter dust
small particles of paper fiber chipped off during cutting and triming operations.

cutting tolerance
the allowable variation in exactness of cut dimensions. (These vary by the overall size and type of the final product. Die cutting tolerances are typically plus or minus 0.4 mm -1/64 inch).

CWA
acroynm for Clean Water Act (US) (Formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act).

CWT
hundred weight; the specific cost of one hundred pounds of a particular stock.

cyan
blue green color, complementary to red and one of the three primary subtractive pigment colors, the other two being yellow and magenta. (Cyan reflects blue and green light, while absorbing red).

cyan printer
in process color reporoduction, the prepress materials used to produce the cyan image. (The letter C is used to designate this color).

cyanoacrylate
a single part frame adhesive that uses an activator spray or tape to accelerate cure similar to super glue.

cycle
the complete repeating sequence of an operation in process or part of process such as the mechanical action of a screen printing press required to complete one print sequence.

cycle time
the time it takes for a imaging press to complete one print cycle.

cyclec
hydrocarbon chemical structure composed mainly of naohthenes and terpenes.

cyclohexanone
a cyclic ketone derived from cyclohexanol used as a solvent for lacquers especially nitrocellulose or polyvinyl chloride.

cylinder press
(1) a screen printing press constructed where the substrate is printed on the crown of a rotating drum; (2) a press used for die cutting.

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~ by Dr. Serdar دکتر سردار on March 28, 2000.

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